Hobbies fretworkers' weekly, special coronation number, may 20th 1911



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The coronation chair

Coronation wall plaque

Panoramic postcard frame



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Free Copy for Every Hobbies Reader.
First Edition of One Hundred Thousand Copies Ready.
To every reader of this announcement who writes asking for it will be sent free by post a copy of “The Cyclist’s Encyclopaedia for 1911.” One of the most practical and useful books ever published in the interests of cycling, it is a volume which every cyclist should possess, and has been compiled by Britain’s leading bicycle makers —Budge-Whitworth, of Coventry.
Science Applied to Cycles.
This firm, which was established in the year 1870, has all along devoted its every energy to the making of bicycles superior on every point to those of any other make. Its signal success is shown by the great reputation which has been built up for Budge-Whitworths, and by the fact that the firm has earned the high honour of special appointment of Cycle Makers to H.M. King George. The supremacy of the Budge is largely due to the skilful way m which modern science has been applied by the Budge-Whitworth Company. All processes are carefully checked in the Laboratories, and all material is submitted to thorough tests; thus insuring that none will be used which is not proved to be reliable and sound.

Some Exclusive Features. Budge-Whitworths are the strongest and lightest bicycles made.
Two of the many exclusive features of the Budge-Whitworth are the rustless finish and absolute interchangeabilitv of all parts—features heartily appreciated by all cyclists.
As mentioned above, every reader of these lines may obtain post free a copy of the valuable Illustrated Cyclist's Encyclopaedia for 1911. This book contains a large folded chart of parts of a bicycle and over 130 illustrations of first-quality cycle accessories at the lowest prices. It is a book which will prove of great interest and value to every man, woman and child, and no one who cycles or who intends to take up this health and pleasure-giving exercise should miss the opportunity to secure this book. Remember it is entirely free.
Send a postcard.

Every Bicycle Guaranteed 10 Years.
The vastness of the Budge-Whitworth business enables the Company to command the very finest material procurable, and also the highest type of skilled workmanship. Being thus ensured that the machines sold to customers reach the maximum of durability and reliability, the Budge-Whitworth Company are able to give a guarantee of ten years with every machine sold.

Address your application to—
Rudge-Whitworth, Ld. (**») Coventry.
The London Depots of the Budge-Whitworth whera you vnav call and see the newest models are at 230, Totteuham Courc Boad, W.; 23, Holborn Viaduct, E.C.
But do not forget to write jor calahgue novn.
To obtain Flowers, Fruit and Vegetables in the Garden you may Dig, Sow and Plant, but to achieve success you must also Fertilise the roots and destroy Insects on the foliage.
Ask your Nurseryman or Seedsman for
RICHARDS’ small pink Price
List which gives particulars of the
Or write to the manufacturer for the name and address of the nearest agent
G. H. RICHARDS, 234, Borough,
Cambridge” Suit,
The“ Cambridge ”is the ideal Holiday or Tourist Suit. It is the suit for all times—for walking, for cycling, for golfing, for shooting, for fishing, for boating, for lounging about in town or country at the weekend, there is no other suit just as comfortable ; it is cool on the hottestday, and yet will protect you from chillson the coldnights It is made with the new bellow patch pockets with pleated centres —it is the speciality which all well-dressed men are wearing.
These are two great advantages to buyers of this suit—it is ready for immediate dispatch—no waiting while it is being made-—if you want a suit you want it now—and the other great advantage is you can buy from us privately by post and pay monthly privately by post. Our easy payment terms are for your convenience. SEND 4/~ ONLY. Give your height, chest measurement over the vest, and colour desired, and this 35/- “Cambridge” Suit is sent you, pay 4/-on delivery, and 4/6 monthly. This extraordinary ofier is to all readers of this paper.

The “Cambridge” suit is made in splendid hard-wearing cloths, in dark and light browns, greens, greys, &c. Perfect cut, fit and finish throughout. Send 4/- with chest and height measurements, Patterns may be had on application.
Good Business Suits made to measure for 34/6, &c. (5/~ monthly).
Patterns, Home Measurement Form, &c. free, write to
MASTERS LTD., 135, Hope Stores, Rye, Eng.
MAY 20, 1911.
IT is only natural as this is our Coronation issue that we should present our readers with some designs by which the great event of next month may be commemorated. We are therefore this week publishing a Double Coronation Wall Plaque and patterns for making the famous Coronation Chair, while in addition to these two designs of topical interest, we also publish on the purple sheet a design for an excellent little Panoramic Postcard Frame.

More interest centres in the historic Coronation Chair than in anything else of a material nature connected with the Coronation. Its story has been oft repeated, but for the benefit of some of our younger readers it may be well to interest them with a few particulars concerning its history and the mystic stone it contains.
Just beneath the seat, a stout shelf has been constructed, and upon this rests what has been termed the “ Stone of Destiny.” This is a large stone of French-grey colour with numerous red veins running through it. It actually measures 22in. long by 13in. broad and llin. deep. Tradition states that this was the stone upon which the patriarch Jacob rested his head at the time of his heavenly vision, but we should think that that was extremely doubtful. We are then told that it was conveyed to Egypt, after which it was brought to Spain by Gaethelus, founder of the Scottish nation. From this point onwards, its history is fairly certain. From Spain it was conveyed to Ireland by a Simon Brech, and placed upon the Hill of Tara, becoming the usual Coronation seat of. the Irish Kings. It remained there until approximately 300 years before the coming of Christ, when it was conveyed to Scotland by Fergus, who was the first of that name. After a lapse of many years, it was built into the wall of Dunstaffnage Castle whence it was removed by Kenneth, who in a.d. 850 placed it in the Church at Scone. From that year until the year 1296 each of the Scottish Kings was crowned seated upon it. It was then that Edward I., after his successful campaign, brought it to London and deposited it in Westminster Abbey, where it has played its important part in the Coronation of succeeding monarchs ever since.
The Chair Itself.
The chair itself is of nothing like the antiquity of the stone. It was made to the order of Edward I. by Master Walter, a celebrated carver and wood worker of Durham. King Edward had originally intended that it should be made in bronze, but he abandoned that idea, possibly as being too costly. The actual value of the wooden chair is stated to be 100 shillings. It is constructed of solid oak, and in dimensions it measures 6ft. 9in. in height, while the seat is 2ft. 5in. broad. In decoration it is purely Gothic, but it has been badly knocked about at certain periods of its history, so that the pinnacles have become partially broken off.
Our Patterns.
We have designed our patterns for the chair to produce a model which scales IJin. to the foot, and the schedule printed on the purple sheet by the side of the patterns, gives practically all the instructions necessary for the production of the chair.
It goes without saying that the wood in which the work must be executed is oak, and it is of this that Hobbies special parcel is composed.
The back of the chair, part No. 1, is to be cut of wood Jin. thick. The lions’ manes may with advantage be put in with the lining tool even more effectively than with the fretsaw. The crockets above the back should be nicely cut, using a medium blade. A fine blade in this case would not be effective, as it would leave too fine a cut, whereas here a more pronounced cut is requisite.
The base is a piece of oak 7in. long by 3f in.
wide, while its thickness is Jin. It should be
chamfered as shown by the section on the pattern on its three top edges, excluding the back. The other work upon it merely consists of the cutting of the three slots as shown. The shelf upon which the “ Stone of Destiny ” rests is in our model to be cut of 3-16in. wood. This is part No. 3, and is almost entirely plain. The actual seat is practically identical, pattern No.- 4, but is cut of Jin. thick material.
The sides, parts 10, are of 3-16in. wood.
The two lions, No. 11, are of Jin. wood, and the numerous other small pieces as scheduled.
The two arms—-parts No. 14—will need special attention in order that they may present a good finish.
These will be cut from Jin. wood, and the upper edges will be rounded as shown by the section. These parts must be well sandpapered when finished. The overlays, parts Nos. 12, 13, 15 and 16, will, as usual, be of 1-16in. thick wood—two of part No. 12 and two of No. 13 being cut together. No. 16, it will be noticed, is merely a small fillet, two of this also being needed.
The Construction.
Take parts 5 and the two parts 6 and halve these together at N. Next fit the tenons K with part 6 under and into the half of the slots K in part 3. Now halve the two small sections, No. 8, into the half-cut-through slots M in No. 7, and then join these up by inserting fhe tenons J into the slots ready to receive them in part No. 3.
The main seat, No. 4, will now be fitted on top of parts No. 7, being held by tenons H.
The two shaped sides, No. 10, will each be halved into parts No. 9, and afterwards will be inserted in slot G above the seat. Tne main back may now be placed on to the various tenons projecting from the back of the parts so far pieced together, glue being used for each of the joints.
The two separate lions, No. 11, will now be glued into the two slots, A, in the half-inch base, after which the partially constructed chair will be fitted and glued into slot B. The glue should be applied to the top of the back of the lions, just where the other portion of the chair will rest upon them. The special arms, No. 14, will now be just glued on to the top of the sides;
The pverlays will-best be fixed with glue. The two of No. 13 cover the sides, the two of No. 12 go on No. 7. The small fillets, No. 16, will be glued as shown by dotted lines on parts No. 13, and finally the two overlays No, 15 will be glued at the top of the back of the chair, as also shown by the dotted lines,
“ The Stone of Destiny.’-
We recommend the ' painstaking worker to> obtain a piece of suitable size stone, or , mould some plaster to the necessary dimensions, colouring it as-described at the beginning of the article,, so that it may be inserted under the seat,, giving a completeness to the model which would be otherwise lacking.’ This chair should be fumed, but the fuming process should not be carried' too far.
THE patterns for this plaque appear on Hobbies Presentation Design Sheet No. 814, that is the sheet printed in green ink given away with this number. It consists of a main decorated back of shield-like form, comprising flags and laurel decoration, with space provided in the centre for the insertion of two china plaques of their Majesties King George and Queen Mary respectively, while the motto, “ God Save Our King and Queen,” is displayed partly above and partly below.
The height of the entire shield is 18in.,.
while its greatest width is 12Jin. We have selected White Sycamore and Dark Walnut for its execution—these woods forming a very reflective contrast.
Preparing the Patterns.
There is one portion of this design which will
sneed tracing, but it is -of such a simple nature that it will tax the abilities of 110 one. It is that section which forms the rebate or surround for the two china plaques. It is heart-shaped below, with the outline of the crown above, and is indicated on the design sheet by the diagonal etched lines. This will need to be traced by means of carbon paper direct on to the wood. The two circles for the reception of the plaques will have to be traced to the
overlay will be placed and fixed, in regard to the latter we would suggest that the glue be supplemented by a few roundheaded brass screws which can be driven in through the three circular holes which will be found on the small projections round each of the two
circles surrounding the plaques.
The pair of specially manufactured china plaques of the King and Queen in natural colours are sold by Hobbies Limited at Is. 2d. the pair, post free Is. 5d.
AN excellent design for a Frame to hold a panoramic postcard will be found at the back of the sheet printed in purple ink. In decor-
dotted lines which are printed on the overlay. After this preliminary work has been completed, the solid printed overlay for the plaques and the overlay crown will be cut from the design sheet and pasted to the piece of
l-16in. wood from which they will be cut, while the remainder of the design for the back will be fixed to a piece of 3-16in. wood.
The Main Back.
Few instructions are necessary to enable the average worker to execute this portion of the design satisfactorily. For some of the finer cuts in the leaves a fine blade should be employed, but many workers will supplement the saw cuts which have to be made on the Hags and leaves bj^ employing the fret-worker’s Lining Tool—a useful little carving tool by which cuts and scores of varying •depth may be made. It is sold by Hobbies Limited, at 9d. It goes without saying that the whole of the centre of the main back is left solid. The rebate piece has already been -dealt with, this having to be cut in wood Jin. thick. It will be glued on to the main back.
ation it is composed almost entirely of curves, so that it is eminently suitable for beginners.
The main back of the frame will be cut from 3-16in. Tasmanian walnut, the overlay being 1-16in. sycamore. The piece of wood, cut from the back to admit the glass and the card, should be taken out carefully in the first instance, as it will have to be re-inserted finally to form the backing. As the overlay is somewhat long and slender, care should be exercised in the cutting of this part. It should be as usual backed with a piece of commoner wood, with the grain running in the opposite direction, and the large opening for the photograph in the centre should certainly be cut last of all. The overlay will be fixed to the frame by means of glue.
A clear glass, No. 5811, measuring 9Jin. by 4in., can be supplied by Hobbies Limited at 2d., post free 4d., including metal photo clips.
The Overlays.
There are in all six overlays, each having to be cut from wood 1-1 Gin. thick. As no two parts are alike, it will be impossible to cut more than one at a time—-the usual plan backing the pieces of l-16in. with commoner of wTood being adopted in order to give strength while cutting. Here, again, the fretworker’s lining tool may well be employed, especially for the shading 011 the ribbon and the two scrolls. For cutting all these overlays, the very finest blade should be employed, and the work should not be hurried. Each of the overlays will be fixed with glue in their respective places, the plaques will then be inserted in the rebate frame, after which the surround
Fretwood, &c., for this Week’s Designs.
Fretwood for Coronation Chair Model.—We can supply a special parcel of Figured Oak of the thickness required for Is., or post free Is. 4d.
Fretwood for Wall Shield.—We can supply a parcel of Sycamore and Dark Walnut for Is, 10d,, or post free 2s. 2d. (Weight, 1£ lbs.)
Coronation Plaqufs. — China Plaques of their Majesties King George V. and Queen Mary, handsomely executed, price Is. 2d. per pair, or post free Is. 5d.
Fretwood for Panoramic Frame.—We can supply a parcel of Dark Walnut, with Sycamore for Overlay, for Is., or post free Is. 4d.
Orders by post to Hobbies, Ltd., Dereham, or Hobbies London Depot, 166, Aldersgate St. Goods may be hai at:
LoDdon : 166, Aldersgate St., E.C.
147, Bishopsgate, E.C.
,, 79, Walworth Road, S.E.
Glasgow : 326 and 328, Argyle Street.
Manchester: 198, Deansgate.
Birmingham : 2, Old Square.
Leeds: 15, County Arcade.
And of all Hobbies Authorised Agenta,
A CORONATION is an event that occurs so rarely that everybody should welcome the opportunity of showing their loyalty to our Sovereign, if only by the exhibition of a few flags. But there are many, no doubt, who would prefer to do a little more than this, and it is those to whom this article is addressed, the suggestions which we make necessitating neither a great deal of time or expense ; indeed the cost is so trifling that this should debar no one. It is possible to obtain a very effective display with only just a few things, by exercising some forethought in the arrangement; an artistic result will be far more gratifying than a few flags stuck promiscuously here and there, and will indeed be well worth the little extra time expended.
The Materials.
The materials which are employed for decorative purposes at such times consist chiefly of flags, either bought ones or homemade, Japanese lanterns and fairy lamps, painted shields, strings of green stuff, with artificial flowers, and drapery, which is most
tions and should be made a distinctive feature.
Fig. 1 shows a scheme for a gateway ; it consists of two stout bamboo poles sunk in the ground a foot or so, or buried in a flower pot or tub, a horizontal pole being tied across a little way from the top. A thin cane is bent into a semi-circle and tied on as shown. In the centre of this is firmly fixed a cross piece for supporting a large crown of green stuff, formed on a wire framework ; underneath this is suspended a large lantern with a series of fairy lamps on each side. On the top of the side supports is fixed a bunch of green and paper roses, and on each side two red, white and blue streamers, which can be made at home very easily. Fig. 2 shows a scheme for a window decoration. The drapery may be in colour either bright red, blue, or purple ; it is suspended from a large nail at the centre of the window, bunched up at the corners and allowed to hang, strings of green being carried round to keep it in place. In the centre at the top is fixed a wooden shield, upon which is painted the flat form of a rampart lion, copied from a flag, this in red upon a yellow ground.
useful for certain purposes. The scheme of colouring is, of course, governed by the national colours — bright Vermillion, Royal blue, and white and gold, and these are obviously the shades to which our efforts must mainly be confined. The illuminations at night must necessarily go hand in hand with the daytime decora-
Upon the window sill is fixed a light frame, enclosing a suitable motto painted in black letters upon some thin paper or
calico, a row of fairly lamps behind creating a
transparency for the night time. This completes the scheme with the exception of. if there is room, a flag underneath and two small
Fig. 3 is an illu -minative scheme, several of which could suitably be employed in the
front of the house ; it consists of a stout bamboo pole similar to those used in the first example, with a child’s hoop firmly fixed at the top, this being most effectually done by wiring the top of the pole to about 2in. down, and glueing a block of wood in the hollow end of the pole ; to this the hook is screwed. The hoop and pole should be painted red and a large lantern hung from the centre with a series of small lights all round. A string of ‘green is wound round the upright, as shown. A Comprehensive Garden Scheme.
Fig. 4 shows a series of standards connected by festoons or ribbons; these would look very effective set round the garden, making a special feature of the gateway. The scheme shown in Fig. 1 would be especially suitable for this purpose. Paint all framework bright vermillion or blue, or in stripes. Fig. 5 shows a scheme for two windows, which includes
night time. This design also includes festoons of fairy lamps and green, suspended from a crown, and the letters G.R. worked out by means of the small fairy lamps. Finally let us urge our readers to employ night lights as a means of illumination in all cases, as by their use the danger of fire is practically eliminated, while the little candles sold for the purpose are very apt to flare and, become a continua anxiety.

a portrait of the king. The frame to which it is secured in is deep enough to allow of four fairy lights or small lamps to be hung behind and form a transparency at

2s. 6d. Awarded every Week.
Problem No. 6.
WE came across an old railway puzzle not long ago which in its day was very popular. As it is quite likely a large number of the readers of this magazine have never seen it we give it here. The diagram
represents a siding Jinked up to the main line by two small loop lines. For convenience of reference the different sections of line are numbered. On section 4 an engine is stationed, and on sections 2 and 6 respectively two trucks are standing,
event of more than one correct solution.
As it is clearly a matter of indifference whether a commencement be made on A or B please for the sake of uniformity start your operations on B.
The question which really requires solving in connection with this problem is, what two arrangements of the numbers 12345 should be made so as to produce a differenc of 1,836 between
designated by the letters A and B. In section 1 there is room for a truck but not for the engine. The puzzle
the two. Only one pair of numbers will produce the result.
Here they are :
is to exchange by ordinary shunting operations the positions of the two trucks and for the engine afterwards to resume its position in section 4.
Set out the different operations you consider necessary in tabulated form, thus —E432. This means i hat you have moved the engine from the section 4 through 3 into 2. Similarly B21 would mean that truck B had been shunted from section 2 into 1 and so-on. Number your moves consecutively. If two trucks are moved together it counts as one move.
We shall award our usual prize to the reader sending a correct solution in the fewest possible moves. The most neatly written card will be awarded the prize in the
As the greater of the numbers expresses the order in which the men passed the winning post, it will be seen they finished as follows:—!, 5, 2, 4, and 3. This result and the manner in which it has been obtained is most lucidly explained by Mr. B. A. Rice of Southsea and he has therefore been awarded our usual prize.
Each solution to be placed on the back of a postcard, and sent addressed “ Problem No. 6,” to the Editor Hobbies, 125, Fleet Street, London, E.C., to reach on or before Friday, May 26th.
(Fig. 4). The top ends of the sides are first cut to the shape shown, the correct shape being obtained by marking 2Jin. down at the edge and fin. in at the top and cutting straight across, the piece which is removed being indicated by the dotted line at B (Fig. 4). Next mark the correct width on the top rail, and set the sides in position on the rail, care being taken that they are set true, and are the correct width at the bottom. A scribed line is then marked on the top rail on each side of the sides, and grooves about Jin. deep are cut in the rail, into which the ends of the sides may fit (as shown at A, Fig. 4). A screw is driven through the rail into the sides, as shown at B (Fig. 4), when they are finally fixed together. Next set out the positions
A SMALL ladder is found to be of great use in any house, and that which we illustrate at Fig. 1, and show in elevation at Fig. 2, is of a most serviceable size, and is also very easy to make. Red deal is admirably suitable for making a ladder of this description, but it should be carefully selected, as knots, shakes, and other imperfections would possibly lead to an accident before the ladder had been very long in use. The sketch (Fig. 1) shows a ladder, consisting of two sides, a top rail, and six bars, the whole of which may be cut from a piece of lin. deal, 8ft. long by 6in. wide. A piece of suitable red deal should net cost more than Id. or ljd. per ft. run bringing the total cost to 8d. or lOd. The only othtr material required is fourteen 2in. iron screws, so that the whole of the material could be purchased for at most a shilling.
The 8ft. board should be marked out as •shown at Fig. 3 ; the two sides being marked so as to finally work to 2in. wide, the top rail to 2 Jin. wide, and the bars IJin. wide. Saw out the whole, and plane up true.
In fixing the parts together, first frame the top rail into the sides. The joint between "the sides and top rail is illustrated at A and B
of the bars on the edges of the sides, carefully scribe across to obtain the correct bevel, and cut small notches in the sides for the reception of the bars. The notches are Jin. deep at the bottom, and taper to nothing at the top (as shown at Fig. 5). Before finally fixing the parts together, first neatly round the top ends of the sides, and the ends of the top rail, as shown in the illustrations. In fixing together the top rail is screwed to the sides, as previously described, and each bar is screwed to the sides, the screws being driven as tight as possible. The ends of the bars, which may project beyond the sides, should then be cleaned off level, and the bottom ends of the sides are bevelled so that th^ ladder will stand at an angle of about 65 or 70 degrees. Give a coat or two of paint.
A CAMP STOOL is always very useful, and that shown at Fig. 1 may be folded into a very compact space when not in use. It consists of two frames, which are hinged together in the centre, while the seat is formed with a piece of stout canvas which is nailed across the top of the frames. Fig. 2 shows a section through the stool ; Fig. 3 elevation of the frames ; Fig. 4 a detail of' the legs ; and Fig. 5 shows the method employed to hinge the frames together.
The wood portions of the stool can be of red deal,which should be carefully selected, and
then finally fixed together, the joints being secured with glue and wedges. Next bore a f in. hole in each leg as indicated at Fig. 4, through which iron rivets may pass. The narrower frame
is fitted inside the wider frame, iron washera about i in. thick are placed between the legs,
free from all knots and shakes. The following will be required: — Four legs 2 ft. long by 1J in. wide by 1 in. thick ; two top rails lft. Gin. long by 1| in. square ; and two bottom rails 1 ft. 4 in. long by 1 in. square ; the wHole being cut out and planed up true to these sizes. The frames are next framed together, and it should be noticed that one fits within the other as shown at Fig. 3. In framing together, the bottom rails are framed into the legs, and the latter are framed into the top rails, ordinary mortise and tenon joints being used. Set
and the rivets are inserted and riveted up as shown at Fig. o, small iron washers being placed underneath the heads of the rivets. The stool is then extended until the top rails are the correct height from the ground, and the bottom ends of the legs are marked and': cut to the bevel. Canvas for the Seat.
The seat, as previously mentioned s„ may be of a piece of stout canvas. This is prepared to width, and: a hem is doubled along one end which is nailed to the underneath side of one of the top rails. Tlr> canvas is then brought
out the legs and rails with the mortise and tenon joints, and first cut the tenons, after which the mortises are cut, and the two are then fitted together, care being taken to see that good joints are obtained. The whole is then taken apart and cleaned up, and the edges of the legs and top edges of the top rails are slightly rounded. The frames are
over the other top rail, care being taken to> keep the stool at the correct span, the canvas is cut to the required length and another hem is doubled at this end which should be fixed in a similar manner to the other.
The stool is then complete, and the wood portions may be finished by staining and varnishing.
I am asked by the Editor of “ Hobbies ” to “ send an Empire Message for the thousands rf ‘Scout’ Readers of ‘Hobbies' in the Empire Number.” I accede with the greatest pleasure to his request. My message is a quotation from a speech by Lord Curzon :
‘ ‘ Let the ambition of each one of you be, to say when his time is nearing its end that whether in a small way or a qreat, he has rendered an appreciable service to his native land” MEATH.
What is it we Enjoy ?
52in. bicycle, and submitted it to the makers of that machine, a very well-known Coventry firm. The chairman of the company had the bicycle tried by one of the crack riders of the period. He rode it from London to Coventry, and reported enthusiastically on the invention. Thereupon it was decided to take up the innovation on royalty, subject to the approval of the shareholders. These ostriches, however, would have none of it. They voted the directors down, and the free-wheel was consigned to the limbo of forgotten things.
Seventeen years later it was resurrected, and now no self-respecting bicycle is without one. What must be thought of the shareholders who thus refused a great invention ?
A Huge Cycle Shed.
A large cycle storage shed, said to be the most roomy of its kind, has been erected at Golder’s Green on the Hampstead and Charing Cross Tube. The shed, which will accommodate about 300 machines, is situated just outside the station premises, and is open from early morning until late at night, but is closed on Sundays. This shed has been erected for the convenience of those cyclists who ride from their homes to the station and complete the journey into the City by Tube. No charge is made for depositing th^ machines.
AN enthusiast said on one occasion that without a three-speed gear it was practically impossible to enjoy cycling, a statement which set us wondering what it was in bicycle riding that we did enjoy. Different people take their pleasure in different ways. One man goes out to study nature, while another is ordered exercise, and takes it as he would take pills. A third lives only for speed—and there are others. I think the chief influence which prompts a man to ride a bicycle in the country is one closely connected with the sporting element in our nature. The healthy animal loves to use his muscles, and in cycling one has an excellent opportunity for muscular activity. . Associated with this exercise we have the pleasurable sensation of rapid passage through the air, the advantage of being able to cover considerable distances, and other minor benefits.
It is certainly quite a mistake to suppose that pleasure from cycling is only to be obtained by using a particular kind of bicycle. Thousands have enjoyed themselves immensely on the old solid tyred high wheel, on heavy tricycles and, indeed, on cycles of every sort. When our machines were not so good as they are to-day we were quite content; we gloried in the speed we could attain and the distances we could cover. We enjoyed our keen exercise ; we could take pleasure in a fast run with the wind or in a fight against the elements. These were not the sole delights of cycling, and they are not the sole delights to-day; but the sporting element is constantly making itself felt, even with most prosaic wheelmen. It may be put aside for a time, but it is safe to say that its influence, though not always felt, never altogether leaves us.
The Inventor of the Free Wheel.
It will probably be news to many that the free wheel was introduced for bicycles so long ago as 1882. The “Irish Cyclist,” however, has unearthed the inventor, Mr. Michael M. Brophy, who, besides being an engineer, has been all his life a keen cyclist. In May, 18S2. Mr. Brophy designed and patented a freewheel clutch for bicycles. It embodied silent pawls, being thus the exact forerunner of the modern free-wheel. H*e had it fitted to a
One of the booklets connected with cycling that one looks forward to every year is that entitled “ All About Dunlop Tyres ”—a real hardy annual in its way. This year prominence is given to the new pattern Dunlop tread, shown for the first time at Olympia, where it was fitted to the majority of the cycles on view. This new cover has been highly spoken of by some of the most experienced and practical riders in the kingdom. For this new tread cyclists are indebted to the motorcyclist, for it was experience with the motorcycle that was the immediate cause of change. Another new thing introduced this year is the “ Pericles ” replacement cover, designed to meet the needs of those who require an inexpensive article which is reliable. The guarantee for six months is a, proof that the company has the utmost faith in this production. The book also deal with tubes, plain and butt-ended, valves, repair outfits, security patches, Dunlop belts, a belt piercer, and a variety of other goods. One of the newest of the sundries, is a solution flask, to the stopper of which is fitted a brush with which to apply the fluid. The stopper screws down on a special washer, it is claimed that evaporation is prevented, and—the brush is never left behind. Copies of this book may be obtained from Dunlop depots, or most cycle agents.
3 Speed Cycles
(Armstrong 3 Speed Gear).
Highest possible quality both in material and finish.
Plated Lamp, Bell,
I SELL ON THE CONDITION THAT BUYERS CAN RIDE FOR 10 DAYS’ TRIAL. If this trial is not satisfactory, return charges are paid by me. Established in 1899, I have made thousands of cycles for Ladies and Gentlemen of high social positions, who permit me to print their testimonials. Write for these and my Catalogue (printed in colours) and then order a machine ON APPROVAL, AND COMPARE IT WITH THE USUAL EIGHT GUINEA BICYCLE !
186, Bromsgrove St., BIRMINGHAM.
DIRECT FROM MY FACTORY ONLY. NO AGENTS. Monthly payments if desired.
Singer Song of Cycling
is just the low pleasing “whirr” of the wheels. The Silent Singer makes no other sound because its construction is as good as 37 years’ experience of bicycle building can make it. Every bearing is perfect—gauged to one thousandth of an inch accuracy—every part of the machine is—and remains—right. What price da you wish to pay ? We make Silent Singers from 6 to 16 guineas. Send for illustrated catalogue to-day.
SINGER & Co.(1909), Ltd., Coventry.
London Showrooms: 17, Holborn Viaduct, E.C.
bottle of “ Vasol ” sufficient to lubricate a bicycle, will be sent upon application and receipt of penny stamp to cover cost of postage.
250 pages. 3260 illustrations. Size 11 by 9. Keenest wholesale prices. Immediate delivery of>orders. No waiting. Best of goods. Eye-opening rock bottom prices. Every up-to-date repairer requires it. fcaves pounds per year. Every catalogue costs us 1/1 to produce, and id. extra for postage, total, 1/5. We send it post-free for 3 penny stamps, and allow 6d. from first order. We are 25 per cent lower in price than most houses. Send to-day and do yourself a good turn. Limited number only for disposal. Stamps returned if you are too late.
MOORHOUSE Ltd., Dept. H., Winchester Cycle Works, Padiham, Lancs.
Write * for
/, of
" VASOL ” the perfect lubricant.
Purchase a6d. Tin (as
illustrated) oi your agent and make your cycling enjoyable.
Write NOW for my Free Lints of
“ Vasol” is a scientifically graphited, highly refined lubricating, not a “ do-all ” oil. It goes to the spot to be lubricated and stays there.
72, Chemico Works, Birmingham.
Obtainable of all agents everywhere.
Price 6d. Post free 7d.
Size 33J in. by 31 in.
This is an excellent Overmantel for a rmall room All the work may be done with a twelve-inch Hand Frame, and owing to the method of construction adopted, all the parts may be put together by the average amateur.
Fretwood.-—Parcels of selected Satin Walnut, of the thicknesses resommended, may be had for 2/4; or post free for 2/10 per parcel.
Mirrors. — A handsome Bevelled-edge Rectangular Silver Plate Mirror (size 20 in. by 15 in.), framed in Reeded Frame of Satin Walnut, may be had carriage forward, for 11/- complete.
Size 16J in. by 12 in.
Parcel of Walnut and Maple, 1/6-, or post free 1/11.
Thirty - hour Clock (5502) 5/-, or post free 5/5
With Double Doors.
Size 27 in. by 22| in. Price 6d., or post free 7d.
Fretwood.—Parcels of selected Myrtle for the Doors. Side Posts, Pediment, Sides, Lower Back, Lower Rail, and two large Shelves. Price 6/-, or 6/10 post free.
Door Panels (No.
6122)—For the doors of this Cupboard we have had specially made a pair of classic Panels. Both Panels
are different, the figures being modelled in high relief. A pair of Panels, carefully packed in box, may be had for 2/6; or post free for 2/9.
Steel Support Bars, 14 in. long, i in. wide, and ^ in. thick, 6d. per pair ; post free 9d. per pair.
Ornamental Hinges and Catch.—Six Ornamental Brass Hinges (No. 5308), with Brass Ring Catch (No. 5341), for door, 9d. per set; or post free lOd. per set.
This Cabinet may be cut and built up by the average worker. Its total length from top to bottom is over 27 inches, and its extreme width over 22 inches. The interior of the Cupboard measures about 16 inches in width, 11| inches in height, and 6 inches in depth. So far as this depth is concerned, it may easily be increased as the worker pleases without any serious alteration of the pattern.
Or of all Branches and Agents.
By Venerable Archdeacon Sinclair, D.D.
WHEN Edward VII. was crowned on August 9th, 1902, no ceremony of the kind had taken place in this country since 1838 ; so there was much to discover, consider and revive. When King George V. and Queen Mary pass into Westminster Abbey on June 22nd this year, the interval will have been only,one of nine years : the arrangements will be easier, the experience fresh.
Egbert, Archbishop of York in a.d. 736* which says that the rite of unction formed part of the ceremony of Coronation. Egbert King of the Mercians, son of Offa, was crowned with great solemnity a.d. 796; the Saxon Chronicle states that by the use of holy ol Egbert was “ hallowed to be King.” Archbishop Becket wrote to Iienry II. that Kings were anointed on the head, breast and arms as a sign of glory, holiness and courage. “ The
A Religious Service.
An English sovereign is* placed in legal possession of his rights by the Act of Settlement, by his proclamation, by his acceptance in the Privy Council, ai^d by the oath of allegiance taken by the two Houses of Parliament. The position is one of enormous responsibility. The Lords and Commons are hi.) advisers; in his name and by his authority power to act is given to*, judges, magistrates, the Colonial Parliaments, the navy, the army, the diplomatic body, and all the vast branches of the civil service. His personal influence with his minister, as himself the permanent head of the State, should be very great. The effects of his personal character and example are unlimited. For the proper discharge of all these duties it has from the earliest days been felt that the office has essentially a religious character, and that the King should be invested with it at a reli-
holy oil in the service being symbolical of the inward anointing of the soul with the unction of the Holy Spirit the employment of it in th& Coronation Service has ever been held to confer a sacred-ness on the person of tho^ Sovereign.”
The enlightened Bishop Grosstete of Lincoln, writing; to Henry III., informs him that the oil used upon Kings is an outward sign whereby he received the sevenfold gifts of the Holy Spirit. It was from having been thus anointed that our Kings have received the style “ Dei gratia, by the Grace of God, which as an old writer of the 14th century says, could not be given to any one else of the* laity.
The Regal Vestments.
The Vestments peculiar ta the Regal office are first a piece of square linen for the head called the Amice ; then the Colobium Sindonis, a sleeveless tunic of white linen; then the Supertunica of Cloth
gious service of the most solemn description.
It is reasonable to look for primitive precedents in Scriptural times. David was three times anointed ; first by Samuel, as the chosen future ruler ; then in Hebron as King of Judah then again in Hebron as King of all Israel. Solomon was anointed as successor to David in his father’s lifetime at Jerusalem by Zadok the Priest, and Nathan the Seer.
Gildas, the historian of the British people during the existence of the ancient British church, states that kings in like manner were anointed with oil. The earliest Anglo-Saxon document on the subject that we know is the Pontifical (or Book of Bishop’s Offices) of
of Gold, a long tunic reaching to the feet, with., a girdle ; then the Armilla, a narrow strip of silk shaped like a stole,passedovertheKing’sshoul-ders, the ends reaching to the waist, and fastened to the elbows by silken knots ; lastly, the Imperial Mantle, or Cape, also of Cloth of Gold.
The Coronation oath was for several centuries, indeed in the time of Charles I., taken on a Latin copy of the Four Gospels, now in the British Museum, said to have belonged to King Athelstan, crowned at Kingston in a.d. 925. The oath was practically the same till the time of William III., when it took that denunciatory form against R.oman Catholicism which has only lately been altered.
The Coronation Service.
The authority for the form of the Coronation Service is the Liber Regalis (Book of the King) kept at Westminster Abbey, which dates back to the Coronation of Edward II. The Pontifical of Archbishop Egbert (795) has already been mentioned ; there are also Pontificals of Salisbury, Winchester and Exeter. The service as used for King Edward VII. and Queen Alexandra was somewhat shortened from previous forms, and may be divided into XIX Sections. I. The Preparation : i.e., the laying of the Oil and Spoon on the Altar, and the procession of the Archbishops and Bishops to the Vestibule outside the West Door.
ing Regalia standing round. XVI. The Homage : done by the Princes and the head of each section of the nobility in turn, with a kiss on the King’s left cheek. Anthem : “ Kings shall see and arise.” Drums, Trumpets and Acclamation.
XVII. Coronation of the Queen by the Archbishop of York. Four Peeresses hold over her canopy. She is anointed kneeling. While the Crown is placed on her head, the Peeresses put on their Coronets. XVIII. The Communion during which the King presents an Altar-cloth and Ingot of Gold, the Queen an Altar-cloth and Mark of Gold. XIX. The Recess. The King and Queen carrying their sceptres and rods, pass into St. Edward’s Chapel behind the Altar, exchange the Imperial copes for the crimson robes of State, and proceed crowned to the west door of the Abbey, from which they depart.
A Splendid Scene.
No scene could be imagined more solemn, devout and splendid, or more suggestive of the tremendous duties of the highest of earthly offices. The Coronation banquet, which used to take place in Westminster Hall, has been for some time discontinued. Various events take place during the Coronation fortnight ; the royal progress through the principal streets of London being one of the chief.
II. The Entrance, with the anthem “ I was glad,” the King and * Queen kneel before the Altar, and take chairs below their thrones. III. The Recogni-tion. The Archbishop, with the Lord Chancellor, Lord Great raft Chamberlain, and Earl Marshal
(Dnke of Norfolk) presents the King on the Platform north south, east and west with a loud voice. Bible, Platen and Chalice placed on the Altar. TV. The Litany. The Regalia of the King and Queen are placed by nobles on the Altar. The King’s : St. Edward’s Staff, the Spurs, the Sceptre and Cross, the pointed SA\ord of Temporal Justice, the, pointed Sword of Spiritual Justice, Curtana or Sword of Mercy, the Sword of State, the Sceptre with the Dove, the Orb, St. Edward’s Crown (and Bible, Platen and Chalice). The Queen’s : The Ivory Rod with a Dove, the Sceptre with a Cross, the Queen’s Crown.
V. The Communion Service. VI. The Sermon. VII. The Oath, in four parts, made on the Bible, and signed. VIII. The Anointing. The hymn: “ Come Holy Ghost.” Anthem : “ Zadok the Priest.” During the
Anointing, for which the King takes off his •Crimson Robes of State, four Knights of the Garter hold a canopy. After the Anointing the Dean of Westminster invests him with the regal robes. IX. The Presenting of the Spurs and Sword, and the offering and redeeming of the Sword. X. The investing with the Armilla and Imperial Cope, and the Delivery of the Orb. XI. The Investiture by the Ring, the Sceptre with the Cross, the Sceptre with the Dove, and the Gloves.
XII. The putting on of the Crown by the Archbishop. Acclamation by the people : “ God Save the King.” The Peers put on their Coronets. Trumpets sound. The great guns at the Tower are fired. XIII. The Presentation of the Bible (introduced at the Coronation of William III. and Mary.) XIV. The Benediction and Te Deum. XV. The Enthronization, the Bishops, Great Officers, and Nobles bear-
So, after the year of quiet mourning for the late King, opens the second chapter of the reign of King George V. Probably no King ever ascended the throne of this country with better auspices or with fairer promise. Favourably known first from an honourable and strenuous career in the Navy, then for his earnest, self-'restrained and conscientious discharge of his duties as Prince of Wales, intimately acquainted with every part of the Empire from his memorable progress round the Colonies, and his visit to India, devoted to his consort, his children and his home, taking every opportunity of showing his sympathy, with the poor, the sick and the suffering, a master, as his first year has proved him of wise and appropriate words, abstemious in his habits, and with a noble sense of the dignity and responsibilities of his exalted office, King George has already won the confidence and love of his people.
Our Art Supplement.
The Art plate with which we present our readers this week is a reproduction from a painting by a well-known London Artist whose work is seen in some of our foremost periodicals—Mr. Sidney Fitmore. It was expressly executed for Hobbies, and depicts the actual Crowning of King George V. by the Archbishop of Canterbury. The Archbishop of York is to be seen on the right hand of the picture. Next week we present our readers with the design for a fretwork frame for this Art Supplement.
The Editor offers a Prize of 2s. 6d. every week for the best paragraph submitted. In addition the sum of Is. will be paid to all others whose paragraphs are printed. Address “ Kinlcs ” to the Editor Hobbies, 125, Fleet Street, London.
Handy Spring Clip.
1 enclose a drawing of a very handy clip,
made out of lft. of steel wire. Note the spring is made first by twisting the wire firmly around a wire nail, and each end to be dealt with separately. —
The prize is this week awarded to Mr. A. J. Goodman, of Wellingboro\ for the following “ Kink.”
An Improvised Pulley.
When in need of a pulley-wheel, a good one
can be made from a cotton reel. Cut a piece of wood, Jin. thick, to shape at A. Through B and 0 bore holes to take screws, and after screwing A into its place, the pulley can be inserted. —A. J. Goodman.
A Secret Code.
Boy Scouts and others who are in need of a good code which does not necessitate constant reference to some elaborately written table of characters may find the following simple, but nevertheless effective, code helpful:—
Pulling up Stumps.
If one has ever tried pulling up stumps when they are firmly fixed, it will be known how obstinately they resist the most strenuous attempts at removal. This shows a simple,
but effective method of removing them. Over the stumps drop a stout loop of rope, R, and through it pass a strong bar of wood, F, allowing about three-quarters of its entire length to re-
main on one side. Rest the short end on a brick or some other hard piece of material at B, then by applying an upward pull at P, an immensely powerful leverage is obtained and the most reluctant stump will be effectually removed.—J. E. Gash, Boston.
Each dot indicates the position of a letter. So if the word Hobbies were to be written it would be as follows:—
With a very little practice a letter written with the above code can be done in a remarkably short time, and to anyone unacquainted with the key the reacting is impossible.— Thomas O. Boyd, Walton, Liverpool.
A Cheap Garden Rake.
All that is required for this simple rake is a piece of wood, 12in. by 3in. by Jin., a few
.nails, 1 Jin. in length, and a broom handle. First take the piece of wood and bore a hole in the centre large enough for the handle
to enter and then at intervals of about lin. drive the nails into the edge of the wood, so that lin. is left protruding. After this the next thing to be done is to fix the handle into its position. This can be done by driving a nail each side of the piece of wood, so as to keep the handle in position.—E. Faux.
A Dustless Sifter.
Buy two wooden lard buckets take the bottom out of one, buy a square foot of wire gauze, cut it out round so as to fit over the
bottom of the bucket, nail it on with lin. nails. Then to keep the bucket from slipping put two blocks of wood A, about half the way down the bucket. Fit the bucket into the other bucket ; it will turn round quite easily. Then, in order to sift the cinders, they are put into bucket C, and the bucket is turned one
way then the other; the dust falls into bucket D. This saves all the mess. A lid
This is the most ^
beautiful Fretwork design so far issued, and when completed the /J
Cabinet forms a mag- 1
nificient piece of furni-tura of which any ffc.
worker would be proud. Si'ijk
Write your Name and Address in space at foot, and post with ^
Six Penny Stamps to Hobbies Ltd*, Dereham, and Cata- x
logue and pattern sheet m
will be sent by return. /jg
Name and Address.
All sizes, 3d. dozen, 2/6 gross. Special ground backs, 4id. doz. 4/- gross.
Send this and 6d. to Hobbies Ltd., Dereham,
(814) E.S.
WE IfflEP IN STOCK everything required by Collectors of lirds’ Eggs, Butterflies, Plants, etc. Every 3I«lp of Cabinets, Apparatus, Books, etc.. ept‘ WATKINS & DONCASTER.
36, Strand, London, W.C.
—, &V-
The Lusty Lung With all his might,
The praise i* sung To friend Fluxite.
Anyone can do solderirg work with
the paste flux that
The Practical Man uses Fluxite.
Of Hobbies Depots in 6d., 1/- and 2/- Tins.
125, Vienna Road, Bermondsey.
Brooks’ Appliance. New discovery. Wonderful. No obnoxious springs or pads. Automatic Air Cushions. Binds and draws the broken parts together as you would a broken limb.
No Salves. No lies. Durable. Cheap.
Lever-top Tins, in boxes, 1/-, 1/9, 3/~.
WHITE, IVORY WHITE, CREAM, and 57 STOCK COLOURS. Paint PARIPAN over old paint or wall-paper, or on new surfaces.
For walls, ceilings, woodwork, motor cars, cycles^ models, fretwork, horticultural and garden work, Venetian blinds, mail carts, boats, yachts, front doors, baths, and all household articles.
Send for free booft and colour chart.
RANDALL BROS., 4, Palmerston House, LONDON, E.C Supplies from HOBBIES LTD., DEREHAM, and all Hobbies Stores.
C. E. BROOKS, 168a, Bank Buildings, ________liingsway, London, W.C.____________________
71 THE TEXAS HATCHER. AND ^ I I ------REARER IS A MARVEL---------------O/"
(Imp. Pat., Nov. 20, ’09.) Read :—W. Lawson, Newcastle-on-Tyne, says: “ Little Texas Hatcher worked splendidly. This season (1910) I have hatched 75 chicks with it, though I was only a novice.” Complete, full instruction, 15-egg size, «/; 30 eggs, 5/-. ; 20th Century Incubator, 40 eggs, 10 6. Other Incubators, Houses. Every* tiling for Poultry. Lowest Prices. Large Illustrated Catalogue Free.—THE NEW POULTRY SYNDICATE (Dept 15), Clonbroclc Road, Stolce Newington, London, N.
and Save Money, make for others and Make Money. It’s easy. We supply a handsome and powerful set of Nickel Plated Fittings tor making an 11/6 Press for 2/9 with full instructions and Patterns. On 7 days’approval. Guaranteed 5 vo^rs. Cash returned if unsatisfied. SIMPLEX MANUFACTURING Co., 53, Eccles Rd., London, S.W,
For plates, films, papers, etc. Best results ; least trouble.
Sent on receipt of penny stamp to cover postage -Eu
Burroughs Wellcome & Co.,
31, Snow Hill Buildings, London, E.C.
<fl M ATE UR_Z7
A VISIT to a photographer’s studio has often been dreaded as much as a visit to a dentist’s would be, due in all probability to the fact that comic writers too frequently refer to the photographer's posing chair as being like a dentist’s chair. In bygone days when long exposures were necessary, and a head rest was used to keep the head still, there wras certainly some similarity between the two chairs, but to-day when photography has been brought to such a high state of perfection, and plates to such remarkable rapidity, there is no need for inordinately long exposures, and the dentistlike fitting known as a head and body rest is rarely to be seen. The banishment of the head rest which held the sitters’ head in a kind of clamp has done much towards making the visit to a photographer one of pleasure rather than of pain, although the latter was always more imaginary than real.
The Follies of Fashion.
The matter of dress bothers man but little, if at all, wrhen about to visit the photographer, and we may dismiss him at once. Dress, however, to the feminine mind is most important, and at times not a little worrying to the photographer who has no wish, like the sitter sometimes has, of making the dress more prominent than the likeness. Thanks, however, to the vagaries of fashion, much grist comes to the photographer’s mill, as a fashionable beauty would never consent to one of her last year’s portraits being published in a society paper, because of the dress having gone out of fashion, for as Colley Cibber, two centuries ago wrote “As good be out of the world as out of the fashion.” One may, however, from a photographic point of view pay too much attention to the follies of fashion, as a prevailing fashion may not suit every type of beauty.
Woman in every age has, one writer tells us, lived for the admiration of men. On this admiration her whole existence has always turned, and probably always will turn so long as there is a man left in the world to admire her, but that man need not of necessity be a photographer. The more simple the dress the better chance the photographer has of making a pleasing likeness, and what has been termed fluffy simplicity ” has much to recommend it if such fluffy simplicity is not over done, as it is unfortunately in many of the photographs of some of our so-called professional beauties. There is no more difficult creature to clothe fitly than the maiden of indefinite age who has left her loose-flowing yoke dresses, her smocks, and her low-belted
tunics behind, but has not yet attained to the dignity of tight fitting garments. It is at this age that one well-known writer advocates the adoption of “ fluffy simplicity,” as any tendency to severity of outline being extremely unbecoming to the unformed figure. Few photographers can equal Mr. S. Eiwin Neame in the rendering of fluffy simplicity, and his pictures of artistically-draped and beautiful young girls are known to all readers of the illustrated magazines and collectors of picture postcards. Such style, however, does not suit every type of face and pose, though it is more lasting and unchangeable than modern fashions. Tastes, however, differ widely, and it is doubtful if ever the fashionable “ fluffy ’ ’ portrait will ever find a place in the homes of country folk. The stiff and often very inartistic pose, with perhaps book, column and balustrade included, is too firmly established in the hearts of the country folk to be ousted by the highest examples of photographic art in portraiture, such as those of the Hollyer and Furley Lewis type for instance.
Colour Rendering.
The problem of colour rendering has now been almost if not completely solved, and although colour photography itself is not yet widely in use among photographers, the art of reproducing the monochromatic values of colours is now almost universal even in third rate studio. The studio-worker, although well knowing the serious drawbacks of the “ ordinary ” plate and the advantage of the “ iso-chromatic ” variety when colour is concerned, was a long time before he would adopt the latter, the average professional being very light filters along with colour sensitive plates, the colour value may be correctly rendered in monochrome. The modern photographer can ring the changes to almost any extent, even to the making of a red dress appear as a white one and light blue as black should he desire to do so. The question of colour may therefore be dismissed if a visit is paid to an up-to-date photographer who knows his business.
Three years ago a paragraph went the rounds of the papers telling us of a “ photo-conservative in his methods. He, as well as his customers, got quite accustomed to yellow dresses coming out black, and blue dresses white, and he was loth to change his system of working. Nowadays it is no more trouble, and no more expense, to represent in the photograph, a blue dress darker than a yellow one, and other colours in their proper tone values, therefore, the question of what colour a certain garment will come out it is not such a difficult one, as by the use of certain screens or
chemise ” a new departure in lingerie specially made for photographers who draped their sitters, but apparently the article did not catch on, for since then nothing has been heard of it. The leading workers of to-day are content to use several yards of white or coloured chiffon, tarlatan or muslin as drapery for the shoulders and head, while a few use a mantilla for the latter. At the time of th.3 marriage of the King of Spain an effort was made to adapt the Spanish mantilla not only in photographic drapery, but for general use, but the attempt like that made to revive the Greek dress in the autumn of 1905 proved a failure, much to the dis-
appointment of many who are somewhat tired of “fluffy simplicity” and the stiffness of modern ( fashions. The graceful mantilla is so characteristic in Spain as to be protected by law, for no mantilla may be seized for debt. This graceful article of apparel might be used more than it is for photographic purposes ; it is far more effective than the “ fascinator ” so beloved by the suburban housewife when visiting the theatre.
The question of head dress is indeed an important one, and what style suits one face will not make a pleasing picture of another. The popular “ Merry Widow ” hat did not suit fifty per cent, of the ladies who ventured to wear it. A broad hat makes one'look more
jolly and good-tempered, while a fancy hat assists in making the wearer look in a coquettish mood. Flat hats erring' on the side of smallness give the sitter a somewhat depressed look as a rule, while a hat which apparently rolls away from the face gives one a brighter look. Heavy hats tend to make the wearer look low-spirited in a picture, and the photographer knows as well as anybody how the mood changes with the hat.
As for dress material the following are the most suited to photography, and the materials they combine best It is
now ever, largely a
matter of individual taste chacun a son gout. The m aterials are ranged in the order of p:reference, and according to i he consensus of opinion. Cloth: combines best,
with linen, crape, fur and lace. Serge: combines best with silk and linen. Velvet: com-
bines well with linen, lace, crape and fur. Silk : combines with crape, velvet, and fur. Calico gocds : combine best with linen and cloth.
W^oollen goods : combine well with linen and
silk. Fur : combines best with fringes, silk and lace. As a rule, long dresses make the best pictures when a full length picture is taken, both because the length of the drapery gives height and dignity, and because graceful
and flowing lines are then more easily obtained. A stout woman can make herself look much thinner by wearing patterns and trimmings that run up and down her dress instead of round and round. She should never wear satin, for it has too much reflection in its depths and appears to increase the size of the wearer.
Though photography may be made to pervert the truth, the camera, as Gladstone said, cannot lie, when properly used. It tells the truth on principle, as Ingles Rogers once stated, no matter how distorted or unpleasant the presentment may be. Once the visitor to a photographer’s studio have grasped this fact, they have taken the first step toward the knowledge that will enable them to play their part at the photographer’s with the confidence that begets success.
The science of photography should be the
photographer’s exclusive acquisition ;the sitter has nothing to do with this. His interest is naturally confined to the artistic side in the matter of pose and arrangement, and much depends upon willing co-operation in this matter, but it is not only advisable but imperative to diffuse among those who require them a few hints by the observance of which, in conjunction with the legitimate knowledge of the photographer, it will be possible to get a most effective and pleasing result.
That the style of head-dress and dress proper has some influence upon the face is proved, I think, by the four photographs of one model on the previous page; one illustrates flimsy simplicity, i.e., draped with chiffon, another illustrates the effect of a black Spanish mantilla, another the “at home” portrait, and the fourth the one-time fashionable “ Merry Widow ” hat.
Photographers with very sensitive
skins often suffer very much after using metol and amidol developers, particularly the former, which appears to affect more than amidol. The malady appears in slightly different forms, owing to the different character of skins. With some people a day or two after using metol the skin on the fingers begins to peel off and the fingers feel stiff ; with others, small painful ulcers appear. Metol and amidol developers, however, do not affect all who use them. Those suffer most who use hard water, common soap, and who indulge in alcohol.
Photographers may work for years without metol affecting them, and then at last feel the effects. When this happens, the worker will never be really safe to use metol again, because when once metol poisoning has appeared and been cured, it will appear again all the more quickly if metol is used, and become worse each time. The only real remedy is to use rubber gloves when developing, or not to use metol again, but metol—especially with hydro-quinone—is such a good developer that many who like it would willingly suffer a little inconvenience than give it up.
The disease first takes the form of itching,
and when any irritation between the fingers is first felt, the hands should be well washed in warm water, with or without carbolic soap; no common soap strong in soda should be used. After washing, the hands should be dabbed—not wiped—dry with a soft towel, and rubbed with vaseline, cold cream or other soothing ointment from a chemist’s. A special soothing ointment, which has been recommended by a specialist, is the following, which any chemist will make up :—Carbolic acid, 1 drachm ; Weight’s coal tar solution, Joz. ; glycerine, 3 drachms ; water 12ozs.
Some workers use vaseline before and after using metol, while others recommend rubbing the hands with lemon before using the developer and washing in warm water afterwards.
We have no wish to condemn metol or frighten amateurs, but there is no denying the fact that a few suffer little or much, and it is as well to know what to do when itching is first felt, because it should not be allowed to continue. The hands should never be placed in an amidol or metol solution any more than is necessary, and the hands should always be washed in warm water afterwards, with carbolic soap if possible ; the beginner will then stand little chance of skin poisoning.
'T’HE subjects for each month are as follows :—
May.—Landscape. (Any process).
June.—Snapshot of any Event Bearing on the Coronation.
July.—Any Subject (on Hobbies Plates or Paper).
August.—Portraiture at Home. September.—Landscape With Water. October.—The Best Mounted Prints.
The Monthly Prizes will consist of :—First. —Cash, £1 Is. Second.—Cash, 10s. 6d. Third.—Cash, 5s. Certificates will also be awarded.
Conditions of the Contests.
Rules.—Two prints of different subjects, or different aspects of one subject, to constitute an “entry." The prints must be accompanied by a front cover of Hobbies of the latest date possible. Fach of the photographs must be mounted upon card, and the title of the photograph with the name and address of sender must be legibly written on the back. No print will be eligible that has already taken a prize in other Hobbies’ competition.
The 1st, 2nd and 3rd Prizes will be awarded to the senders of the best three entries.
No photographs can be returned, and the Editor reserves the right to reproduce any of the prints in Hobbies. Prints must be received not later than the 1st of each month following the month of competition addressed :—Photo Competition, Editor, Hobbies, Dereham, Norfolk.
A H lpful criticism of each Competitor’s work will be sent it stamped and addressed envelope is sent with print?.
year of and bon-
iHIS is the year celebration; fires and every scout should know how to make a bonfire or beacon that will burn well. We are indebted to the Scout Commissioner, for Linlithgow, Col. H. M. Cadell, V.D., for giving us instruction in how to make a success of bonfire, or beacon making. He has issued a little booklet containing six pages of verse entitled—a 44 Bonfire Ballad for Boy Scouts”—and the following has been taken from those verses as being the vital points of his instructions.
Well creosoted sleepers old By railway companies are sold,
At fifteen shillings to the ton For bonfires-builders they’re Al.
Old boxes, oil or spirit casks Should be given free to him who asks By public-minded gasworks boards Or manufacturers, from their hoards.
If weather should the process mar,
A keg of paraffin or tar
Thin sprinkled o’er the dampest part
Will help the blaz;e to make a start.
Get three spars of sufficient strength Twenty or thirty feet in length,
The smallest ends together tie,
Then stand them up, the tips on high, And feet apart, ten feet or more,
This tripod forms the hollow core.
Now take the heaviest of the wood,
Lay it round like cart-wheel rude, * With spokes that run from nave to rim, And slits between like portholes grim To let the air draw in below,
The next course round the sides should g°-
The heaviest sticks should form the skin, And hold the brushwood packed within. Like sugar-loaf the shape should be If you a bonfire sweet would see.
Although our organisation is a non-military one some districts find it difficult to get along without some form of drill.
The following drill will be found very useful and is the form adopted by the Birmingham and District Association of Boy Scouts.
Fall in.
Form double rank, on the'*left of. two senior patrol leaders, in open order, viz., about four
feet interval between front and rear rank. Scouts should be arranged according to size.
In dressing, each one will look towards the flank indicated with smart turn of the head. He must carry his body backward or forward with the feet, moving to his dressing with short, quick steps, without bending the body backward or forward, shoulders to be perfectly square to the front. Each should be able to see the lower portion of his next but one comrade’s face.
Eyes Front.
When the instructor is satisfied that both ranks are in true line, the command may be given “ Eyes front.”
The numbering will be commenced from the right; the front rank boys only will call out in succession, the rear rank keeping silent, ^but taking their numbers from the boys immediately in front of them.
Formation of Fours.
On the command “ Form Fours,” the even numbers only of both ranks will take one pace to the rear with the left foot and one pace to the right with the right foot, the odd numbers of both ranks standing firm and steady.
Formation of fours when the ranks are changed, viz., when troops are turned about. In this case the even numbers" take one pace to the rear with the right foot and a side pace with the left foot. Troops should practice well in this movement. Care should be taken that a complete four be at the end of each troop.
By Your Right (or Left) Quick March.
Dressing on march, in any formation, after the command “ Quick march,” the additional of, by the right, or by the left must be given This means that scout must keep in line with the extreme right or left-hand boy as ordered. Sealed Orders.
A very interesting and useful exercise which teaches map-reading, path-finding and observation, is to give the leaders of each patrol a sealed envelope, containing a map of roads and streets, prominent buildings, trees or hills, from which he and his patrol are to find their way to a certain place, where the Scoutmaster will be waiting for them.
.Jk ^SPICA f-'JcORVOS */
The leaders will receive the sealed orders at their club-room or headquarters, and will then proceed to a place indicated on the envelope each leader being instructed to go to a separate place, when the sealed orders are opened, and the maps examined. The patrols will then proceed as quickly as possible along their route to find the scoutmaster.
The patrol first home wins.
If the scoutmaster will conceal himself, much amusement, as well as keen scout- o ing, may be had u by all before he is iound.
At the beginning of every month we will give a map of the evening sky for the month, show ing the bright stars that «every scout should know. The stars which are of greater magnitude than the others are shown in diamond shape on our diagram, the lesser stars being shown as round spots. This will give you a guide in picking out the various groups.
The bright star Spica, which forms part of the group Virgo, is to be seen almost on the .meridian about 10.30 p.m. Another star
which will attract your attention is Antares, which forms part of the group Scorpio, to be seen close on the southern horizon.
On looking at the north you will see Cassiopeia, just under 'jhe Pole Star, and the bright
star in the east is Vega (in group Lyra), with Altair (bright star of group Aquila) almost under it.
The map shown in our diagram represents the view overhead, hence the reason for reversing the positions of East and West. The stars in centre of the map will be almost directly above where you are standing.
Finnish Scouts in Difficulties.
The Boy Scout movement which has been making good headway in Finland has received a nasty shock. The authorities have discovered that the movement is going ahead faster than they think it should. The Governor-General has ordered the scouts to send in a daily report of the doings to the local police, and if the Governor’s demands are ratified at St. Petersburg it will prove the death-blow of the scouting movement in Finland.


ABOVE all things it is necessary to have good materials, and that these be prepared in a proper manner, in order to execute any task combining so many ingenious contrivances as the making of fireworks undoubtedly require. The manufacture of your own gunpowder is. not desirable—you should buy the best; but as the admixture of charcoal is necessary, and as much of your success depends upon having it good, observe that the less of sap there may be in the wood before it is made into charcoal, the better will be the powder. The wood is to be dried in an oven, with a slow fire, and the charcoal kept in close boxes from the influence of air until the moment it has to be used.
There have been many methods used to grind these ingredients to a powder for fireworks, but no method has proved so effectual as the simple apparatus known as the mealing table. It is made of elm, with a rim round its edge, 4 or oin. high, and one end is a slider.
How to Make the Mealing Table.
Get two pieces of elm, or any other hard wood ; cut perfectly circular about eight or twelve inches in diameter, and three-quarters of an inch in thickness. One side of each piece should be planed up perfectly true with each other. To one of the pieces a handle should be fixed about four inches from the centre (see Fig. 1). Attention should be next turned to the other piece. This must have a rim tacked round (see Fig. 2), either of wood or tin—tin will answer the purpose if a suitable piece of wood cannot be obtained. This rim should stand about four
inches high. A hole must be cut in the rim near the bottom of the table, and a sliding door fixed. This being done, the powder may be extracted during the process of grinding. Strips of tin can be used for the slides. Cut two pieces an inch wide, and long enough to allow the door to slide back clear of the hole. They should be bent to shape, and if a tin rim is used, soldered on. Fig. 3 shows how the 15 >
sliding door is fixed, and Fig. 4 gives a view of the mealing table complete. A mealing table is recommended where large quantities of powder are to be ground. If small quantities only are wanted together, two pieces of flat hard wood can be used, the powder being put on one and rubbed with the others. A pestle and mortar may be used for grinding brimstone and saltpetre separately, and is an advantage. Brimstone, being hard, is inclined to stick to the surface of the table. Flowers of sulphur can be used in the manufacture of powder.. This saves a deal of grinding, but the best, results are obtained from brimstone.
When you are going to meal a quantity of powder do not put too much on the table at once, but when you have put in a good proportion, take a muller and rub it till the grains are broken very small; then sift it in a sieve that has a receiver and top to it; and that which does not pass through the sieve
return again to the grinder, and grind it all until you have
brought it fine
enough to go through fie sie^e.
Brimstone and charcoal are ground in the same manner a; gunpowder ; only the muller should be made of harder material, for these
ingredients are rather harder than powder, and would stick to the grain of the elm, and be very difficult to grind ; as the brimstone is apt to stick and clog to the table, it would be best to keep one for that purpose only, by which means you will have your brimstone clean and wall ground.
To Make Touch-paper.
Dissolve in some spirits of wine or vinegar a little saltpetre ; then take some purple or blue paper, wet it with the above liquor, and when dry it will be fit for use. W7hen you paste this paper on any of your works, take care that the paste does not touch that part which is to burn. The method of using this paper is by cutting it into slips long enough to go once round the mouth of the serpent, cracker, &c. When you paste on these slips leave a little above the mouth of the case not pasted ; then prime the mouth of the case with meal powder, and twist the paper to a point.
Next week we shall explain how to make* Roman Candles, Squibs, Crackers. &c.
Read This Carefully.
The good-humoured man is the man with well-fed nerves.
The ill-tempered person is simply starved. That is the simple fact. He does not know it; but he is. Feed his nerves, and you cure his temper.
D3ubling his meals won’t make him any better. It isn’t the amount of food, but the kind of food that needs changing. A most delicious food-beverage—the very taste and smell of it make a person feed kindly—is Dr. Tibbies’ Vi-Cocoa, which helps the stomach to digest other foods and banishes dyspepsia—the chronic indigestion which is so liable to make people, especially brain workers, cross and morose. Sixpence will buy a packet of Dr. Tibbies’ Vi-Cocoa ; but when you spend that sixpence it is not merely a food-drink that you are buying, but sixpence worth—nay, a pound’s worth—of good humour and sunny happiness.
Do not ask your grocer far Cocoa. Ask for
—It makes al] the difference.
Every grocer sells Vi-Oocoa in 6d. packets and 9d. and 1/6 tins.
Particulars of Tinol, Tinol Accessories and Tinol Outfits of : —
And at all Hobbies Stores and Agents.
experience enables us to know exactly what the amateui requires, and our large 1911 List will fully confirm we are the firm for value. Write for copy to-night, a list will follow.
Lamps (complete) each .. 2/6 Accumulators from ,, .. 1/9
Cycle Dynamos “Dynalite” 16/-Write for List and have details of our electric cycle apparatus.
** IT F r ” BOAT Whynotmakeenquiries.
Ef.Er. v, MOTORS. We are the firm for these goods.
Estab. 1896. THE Estab. 1896.
Twickenham, London, S.E.
Royal AJAX
£2 10 0
BRITISH CYCLE MFG. CO. (1901) Ltd., (Dept. G) 1 & 3, Berry Street, Liverpool
(Ladies’ 2/- Extra).
Extraordinary value. Edges piped with leather to prevent fraying. Tailor-made. Sewn seams throughout. Made from beautiful fawn-green waterproof cloth. Cannot be bought under double our price. Give us proof and we’ll give you coat for nothing. Our tremendous manufacturing facilities and output makes it possible to turn out a garment at such a low price. Other firms Say we must be losing money. That is our lookout. It is our way of advertising. Best goods at rock bottom prices has placed us absolutely in the highest place in the British garment trade. We make waterproof garments from 30 different cloths and in 13 different styles. Perfect fit, cut and style warranted. No shoddy goods made. Our range of patterns are beautifully mounted in handsome Art folding booklet. Each set of patterns costs us 1/- to produce and Sd. extra postage. We don’t ask you to pay for patterns (we give you them) but we ask you to send us 3d. to cover cost of packing and posting. In the event of you placing an order with us, we allow you to deduct 6d. from your order. We have only a limited number of pattern sets to send out, and return your 3d. if too late. With the patterns, we send Easy measurement form, particulars of our £50 challenge, and booklet of unsolicited testimonials. Write to-day and save your money. MOORHOUSE LTD., Desk H., Wellington Mills, Padiham, Lancs.
70 Different Foreign Stamps,
posl free.
St. Pierre and Miquelon Head, (View 1910 , Martinique Creole (1909),
Somalis Coast French Guiana
(Ant-eater), Canton, Reunion (Map), Upper Senegal* Niger, Madagascar (Pictorial), Middle Congo Leopard), F. Oceania Kouang-tclieou, F. Morocco, Tchong-king, F. India, Pack*hoi, Mongtseu,
F. Levant, Alexandria, F. Crete, Hoi-hao, Mauritania, F. Guinea, etc., etc.
We have thousands of Stamp Bargains. List Free.
Choriton-cum-Hardy, MANCHESTER.
130 GENUINE STAMPS from all Parts of the World, including Madagascar (pictorial). Chilian, Java, Chinese Empire, Bolivia (scarce arms), Rare Persian, Costa Rica, Cuban, Argentina, Egyptian (Sphinx and Pyramids), Cape Colony, Colombus, Peruvian, etc., etc. Post Free 3d. and to every buyer I will give absolutely gratis a duplicate book packet of stamp mount3, perforation gauge, and Set of 5 Rare Bolivian. I do this only for a time that collectors may see my bargain list which I send free to all applicants.
W.BERRY, 21, Ryecroft St.fParson’s Green, London,S.W-
Fifteen Different African Free,
Special Gift No. 243 contains 15 different African stamps including, Zanzibar, Nyassa, Somaliland, Transvaal, Cape
Colony, etc.
This packet with a copy of our 1911 Stamp Collector’s Guide will be sent quite free to any responsible collector upon receipt of Id. to lav postage (abroad 4d). Wanted to buy, all obsolute issues ".a high values of current British Colonies.
Every Accessory a Cyclist may require is given absolutely free with each MEAD
Genuine British-made. Warranted, fifteen years. Defiance Puncture-proof or Dunlop Tyres, Brooks’ Saddles, Crabbe Brakes, Coasters, Variable Speed Gear, etc.
From a& * B && a payments.
Packed Free. Carriage Paid.
Write at once for Free Art Catalogue
and Special Offer on sample machine. Sava Dealers’ profits. Agents wanted.
CYCL.E CO., Dept >« «*•
11-13. Paradise Street LIVERPOOL.
prepare a specially
Hon-Poisonous and of Uniform Consistency.
To be had at all Hobbies Supply Stores, Agents, <fcc,, and at
The ONE 81 ALL Garden Books are a useful series of Popular Penny Handbooks. Each number treats of a separate subject by a practical expert. They are neatly printed on good paper and profusely illustrated. They are on sale at all One 81 All Seed Agencies, the Railway Bookstalls, and at all the leading Newsagents and Booksellers.
No. 1.—SWEET PEAS. By Richard Dean, V.M.H.
No. 2.-ANNUALS. By T. W. Sanders, F.L.S.
No. 5.—SALADS. By Horace J. Wright, F.R.H.S.
No. 4.—VEGETABLES. By Horace J. Wright, F.R.H.S.
No. 5.- PERENNIALS. By T. W. Sanders, F.L.S.
No. 6. -MANURING. By Edward Owen Greening.
No. 7.—POTATOES. By the Hon. H. A. Stanhope.
No. 8.—ALLOTMENTS. By T. W. Sanders, F.L.S.
No. 9.—ROSES. By T. W. Sanders, F.L.S.
No. 10.—GARDEN MAKING. By Edward Owen Greening, F.R.H.S* No. 11.—BULBS. By S. Arnott, F.R.H.S.
No. 12.—WEATHER. By Hon. H. A. Stanhope.
No. 15.—ONIONS. By Horace J. Wright, F.R.H.S.
No. 14.—CLIMBERS. By T. W. Sanders, F.L.S.
No. 15.—PEAS. By Horace J. Wright, F.R.H.S.
No. 16.—TOMATOES. By W. Iggulden, F.R.H.S.
No. 17.—BEANS. By R. Lewis Castle, F.R.H.S.
No. 18.—ASTERS. By Walter Wright, F.R.H.S.
No. 19.—LAWNS. By W. J- Stevens, F.R.H.S.
No. 20.—STOCKS. By R. P. Brotherston.
No. 21.—PANSIES. By James B. Riding, F.R.H.S.
No. 22.- ROOTS. By Hon. H. A. Stanhope.
No. 23.—FRUIT. By W. Iggulden, F.R.H.S.
No. 24.—UNHEATED GREENHOUSE. By E. J. Castle, F.R.H.S*. No. 25.—CABBAGES. By Horace J. Wright, F.R.H.S.
No. 26.—SMALL GARDENS. By T. W. Sanders, F.L.S.
No* 27.—GARDEN ALLOTMENTS. By John Wright, V.M.S.
No. 28.—CROPPING ALLOTMENTS. By John Wright, V.M.S* No. 29.—MUSHROOMS. By R. Lewis Castle, F.R.H.S.
No. 30.—PHLOX. By Chas. H. Curtis, F.R.H.S.
No. 31.—ANTIRRHINIUMS. By Fred W. Harvey.
No. 32.—SHADY GARDENS. By T. W. Sanders, F.L.S.
Bound Volumes, Nos. 1 to 12, and Nos. 13 to 24, paper covers, //- ; cloth, 1/6.
Publishers: AGRICUL-
fig. 1.
THIS large tract of country north of Cape Colony near the Transvaal was early brought into touch with civilisation by the missionary efforts of Moffat and Livingstone. This important country now under the control of Great Britain is as large as the whole of the Spanish Peninsula. The stamps of the Cape of Good Hope, overprinted “ British Bechuanaland,” were first used, the earliest post marks being February, 1886. The stamps thus overprinted were |d. slate, Id. pale rose red, 2d. bistre, and Is. bright green. In 1887 the stamps printed “ British Bechuanaland Postage and Revenue ” in the panel, on what are known as unappropriated dies were put into circulation. These stamps as will be noted from the example given in Fig. 1 were adapted to the insertion of the name of any country in the label. Those used in Bechuanaland were Id., 2d., 3d., 4d., and 6d., all lilac and black, and Is., 2s., 2s. 6d., 5s. and 10s. green, *and £1 and £5 lilac. Some of these are met with, with surcharges of value in black, others in red. The contemporary stamps of Great Britain were also from time to time used overprinted “ British Bechuanaland ” and “ Bechuanaland ” and “Protectorates.” These are very varied and of different values. In 1904-8 contemporary stamps of Great Britain ®!IG* * (king’s head) were overprinted
4C Bechuanaland Protectorate,” in vertical lines in black (see Fig. 2) ; there was also a provisional issue of fiscal stamps used occasionally. Collectors should note that although some of these surcharged stamps are of quite small value, other varieties are rare, and difficult to obtain, so that all surcharges of this country should be carefully examined. Bermuda.
Bermuda, or, as the islands were at one time called, Summers Islands, became the seat of a British Colony under charter from James I. in 1619, and have never since passed out of our hands. The first stamp issued was a postmaster’s stamp, prepared hy the postmaster of Hamilton, in 1848, and it was not until 1865 that official stamps bearing the name of Bermuda, and the portrait bust of Queen Victoria, were prepared. These were issued
fig. 3.
in the values of Id. red (see Fig. 3), 2d. blue, 3d. yellow, 6d. purple, and Is. green, there being several different shades in each of the colours; the watermark was crown C.C., perforation 14. In 1875 there were some surcharges, One Penny being surcharged on 2d. bright blue, 3d. yellow-buff, and Is. green. In 1880 two new types appeared for Jd. stone, and 4d. orange-red ; these were watermarked Crown C.C., perforation 14. In 1884 a 2Jd. ultramarine was issued, and in 1901 a surcharge, One Farthing, is met with black on Is. slate-grey. The first pictorial stamp for use in Bermuda was issued in 1902, on it is a view of the floating dock, the value Jd. black and green, Id. brown and carmine, 3d. magenta and sage-green, the watermark on these stamps is Crown C.A. perforation 14 (see Fig. 4).
The issue of 1906 was more extensive, the values being Jd. brown and violet, Jd. black and green, Id. brown and carmine, 2d. grey and orange, 2Jd. brown and ultra-marine, 4d. blue and chocolate, the watermark multiple Crown C.A., perforation 14. A slight change was made in 1908, when universal colours were issued for the ^d. green, Id. carmine, and 2Jd. ultra-marine. In 1910 a new design was used for the £d. green and Id. carmine. This is, of course, the type chiefly in use at the present time.
Recent Issue.—South
A very handsome commemorative stamp has recently been issued by the Colonial
Government to com- ~ ^'
memorate the Union of FIG*
South Africa. Its face value is 2^d. (Fig. 5), the legend 4 4 Union of South Africa ” being inscribed in English and Dutch, a very well-executed three-quarter face portrait of H.M. King George V. occupies, the central oval, surmounted by the imperial crown, the date (Continued on page 165.)
FIG. 4.
THE fretwork machine adapts itself to the table of a sewing machine with very little alteration or work. The hand wheel is removed and two holes are cut in the table, for the clamping arms to pass through in such a position that the small driving pulley is exactly over the main treadle wheel. Two small holes must also be bored for the belt to pass through to drive from one wheel to the other.
The machine recommended is a Hobbies hand fret machine, price 10s.
For a Circular Saw.
The circular saw requires more work, and the method of construction will be entered into more fully.
The saw is 6 in. in diameter, and is supplied by Hobbies Ltd., Dereham, with spindle for 9s. 6d. I shall, however, omit many dimensions, so that the instructions will be suitable for all saws and spindles.
The saw is mounted on its spindle and secured firmly by means of the nut; a small pulley (supplied by Hobbies Limited, at 3d. for a single pulley and Is. for a double one) is then fitted to the spindle.
Two wood arms are now made out of 1|- in. by 1 in. section wood ; the lengths of these pieces are determined by the height of the table above the centre of the treadle wheel. One end of each is drilled to fit the treadle crankshaft ; a slot is made in the middle of that end through the hole and a in. bolt fitted. This will enable a good fit to be made and maintained on this spindle.
The upper ends of these pieces of wood are drilled | in. larger than the respective ends of the saw spindle, and are then bushed with a brass bush to fit the spindle nicely. Care must be taken to ensure these holes being exactly the same distance away from the lower holes, or the saw will not run true.
The left hand piece must be just long enough to swing upwards on the crankshaft without touching the table ; while the other arm may be made long enough to pass through the table and have a handle formed on its upper end. Alternatively, both arms may be made the same length and a handle made to stand out.
INTERESTING hobby. Silkworms Eggs for sale. Hatch during May. 3d. for 30, with instructions. Penny postage.—Frank Frost, The Lindens,
Station Road, Wylde Green._
SALE, a Half-Plate Camera ^ and Outfit, coirplete, R.R. Lens, 1 D.D. Slide ; particulars.— Apply, Bentham, 258, Ormskirk Road, Upholland, near Wigan.
“ dEMINGTON ” Rifle for sale, good condition, 21s., or offers. —E. McElvaine, Scarva, Co. Down.
OALE, Dynamo and Medical Coil;
cost 26s.; take 10s.—Gerdenits, Albert Drive, Conway,
Assuming that the saw is 6 in. in diameter (a smaller size is not recommended) a slot should be cut in the table for the saw to run in, the position is found by putting the small driving pulley exactly over the treadle wheel and marking the position of the saw. The slot should be J in. wide by 11 in. long.
A larger hole must be now cut 5J in. long by 2f in. wide. The right hand edge of this hole must be marked from the right hand edge of the hand lever when the saw is in its correct position.
If the alternative design of lever is used the hole need only be, say, 2 in. wide to allow the driving pulley not to foul the table. The portion occupied by the pulley may be covered by an iron plate (or brass). This is cut out of J in. sheet and the central proj^otion then bent up at right angles along the dotted line. The hole is for a pin to fix the saw in its central position for executing plain work.
The plate is let into the table so that its top edge is flush and its right hand edge straight parallel, and ljin. away from the right hand edge of the hole. A small piece of Jin. plate, say, ljin. by ljin., is screwed to the left hand face of the lever and the pin hole marked off when in position, and then drilled.
A slot for the guide is cut in the table ; it is 3 in. long by 5-16th in. wide.
The guide block is made of wood, its edges being planed quite true ; it should be 4 in. long, by 1 \ in. wide, and § in. deep, with a J in. hole in the centre. A J in. bolt with square shank is passed up through the slot into the guide, which is then secured by nufe and washer.
For Parallel and Angle Cutting.
For parallel cutting, the guide is placed parallel to the saw so that the distance between its inner face and the saw is the required width to be cut.
For angle cutting, the guide is set to the* required angle, the pin is removed from the lever, which is held back to its furthest extent, and then brought forward gently when the work is in position and the saw is running. In this way all forms of geometric design may be easily constructed.
CELL, fouriVolumes Cassell’s Popu-^ lar Gardening ; complete ; accept 30s.—G. Wardle, Bournheath, Broms-grove.
Q ILK WORMS ; Healthy ;ls. dozen, ° 3d. postage ; instructions.—H.
Lancelott, 15, Soho Avenue, Hands -worth, Birmingham.
QILKSWORMS Eggs, 250, 4d.; ° 1,000, Is. ; soon hatching.—
Clifton, Bridge View, Boundary Road, Woking.
VACHT, 1ft. 8in. long, 3s. ; also 2 model railway bridges, Is. 6d. —S. Wheeler, Alfred House, Wautage.
6 WHITE fantail pigeons for sale, 3s. 6d.—9d. each.— Stotjb,
Wrekenton, Gateshead.
1 PLATE Coronation Camera,.
2 2D. Slides, Tripod, cost £5 4s., take V50s. Cash offers.—Roberts, Thorne, Ninfield, Battle,
APPROVALS. — 6,000 different ^ stamps, id.—3d. each.—Brian Stafford, Godalming. H
-DREAKING up Collection 10,000 Varieties. Approval selections sent to advanced collectors.—“Philatelist,” Ferndale, Madeira Avenue,. Worthing,
THE monoplane illustrated above is a large built-up model, made to Mr. T. W. K. Clarke’s patent monoplane design. The machine has not been entered in any public competition, but has flown considerable distances. It will be noticed that a single propellor is used, but this is driven by two skeins of elastic geared together with small brass gear wheels, so as to eliminate any twist on the frame due to the action of the elastic.
The particular design of flying machine about to be described was the outcome of attempts by the writer, previous to 1908, to obtain an aeroplane model of high efficiency and of very strong construction.
In view of the enormous number of cases, up to that time, in which experimenters had spent months, sometimes years of hard labour evolving a machine, a veritable marvel of model construction, only to see it at the first trial dashed to pieces, or, at the best, damaged to such an extent that the time taken to put the model in working order again was entirely out of all proportion to the useful information gained, Mr. Clarke recognised that in order that any machine shall pass through the ordeal of the preliminary trials for getting the best positions for the surfaces, weights, &c., and shall be capable of being used for a consecutive series of experiments, it must be practically unbreakable, and the various parts must be simple and renewable. Lightness was considered of secondary importance, extra weight being only a matter of higher speed, while at the flame time it ensures greater stability.
With this main idea in view, Mr. T. W. K. Clarke conducted his experiments, and gradually evolved the wooden model of the type recently described in Hobbies. With the data supplied by models of the above type, the monoplane now described was made and has proved to be a successful outcome of a long period of experimenting.
The Framework is 5ft. 6in. long, square in section, and tapering to the end, which forms a sharp prow. The frame is 5in.
square for the greater portion of its length, and is built up of Jin. by Jin. hickory, it is stayed throughout with fine plated piano wire, running through eyelets let in at the cross struts and uprights.
The Main Plane has a span of 5ft. with a width of lOin. and is built up of hickory. The front spar, or boom, is Jin. by Jin., the back Jin. by 3-32in. and the inner spar Jin. by Jin. The ribs, fourteen in number, are of 3-16in. by l-16in. There is a small dihedral angle. Both sides are covered with fabric and the plane is stayed to a central tripod, fixed to the framework, as well as to the sides of the frame, and is easily adjustable, so that the angle may be altered.
The Fabric.—This is of rubbered cotton, carefully stretched, and securely attached to the framing of the planes, giving a perfectly smooth surface.
The Front Plane, 2ft. 6in. by 7Jin., is built up of hickory in the same way as the main plane, the wood being of the same width and thickness for each particular part. The surface is covered with fabric on both sides, and is attached in front to the tops of the projecting ends of the two front struts. At the back are adjusting wires, fastened to the frame with rubber, so that the angle cf incidence may be easily altered. The front surface is normally at a small positive angle to the main surface.
The Propellor, 1ft. 5in. in diameter, i$ left-handed, made of cedar, and fits in a metal clip which is attached to one of the gear wheels of the rubber motor.
The Rubber Motor.—There are two equal skeins of l-16in. square elastic, with 32 strands in each, the length of the skeins being about 5ft. The two small brass gear wheels used are carefully fitted on a sheet brass bracket, screwed to end of framework to run with the least amount of friction. Their use is not so much to increase the power necessary to drive the propellor as to prevent any twist in the frame, which could hardly be avoided if the rubber were attached directly to the propellor shaft.
2. Flan of model, showing position of planes and propellor. 3. Side elevation, showing the stayed framework. 4, Section showing front plane. 5. Section showing dihedral angle of main plane. 6. Section through main plane. 7.
Shape of one half of propellor. 8. Plan of front plane, showing framework. 9. Position of framework of main plane. 10. Plan of geared wheels. 11. Elevation of geared wheels. 12. Scale of inches. The arrow shows direction
of flight.
FI Q. FIG. 3.
5. FIG. 11.
PRIVATE ADVERTISEMENTS are inserted in these columns at the rate of 6d.for the first 12 words or less, and id. for 3 wordsafter.— For TRADE ADVERTISEMENTS, and Advertisements of FOREIGN STAMPS, the rate is Id. per word.— Every word, including the name and address, is counted. Initials and numbers, or groups, such as E.P.S. and £1 11s. 6d., ara counted as ona word. Advertisements offering FRETWORK DESIGNS for sale cannot he accepted.
Copy for advertisements in SALE AND EXCHANGE column must be sent to “HOBBIES,” 166, Aldersgat© Street, E C-, not later than RIOKDAY MORNING for insertion in the paper published the following week.
A RUBBER Stamp of your name
and address, ready for use, 4£d. post free.—Ernest Wood & Co., Chorlton-cum-Harly, Manchester.1 a VERY interesting hobby. Collect ^ beautiful TROPICAL BUTTERFLIES, from 3d. each. Catalogue and particulars free.—Swinhoe,Dept. C., 6, Gunterstone Road, West
DOOTS.—Save nearly 50 per cent.
buying from factory direct. Agents wanted ; send postage 2d. for list, particulars.—British Boot Co. (484) Portland Square, Bristol.
ORITISH and Tropical Butterflies.
Lists. — Ford, Naturalist, Bournemouth.
(CINEMATOGRAPH Films for ^ sale ; send for lists.-—Pollard’s Pictures, Western Avenue, Burnley. (CORONATION. Make Hobbies pay ^ by using Repousse Copper Panels, King and Queen, 7in. by 5£in., 9d. each. Sell splendid Shilling Gilt Medal to friends, 8d. each.—Mallin, 53, Northampton Street, Birmingham. 'lYCLE TY'KEs guaranteed, 3s. 6d. J Don’t send cash. Send postcard for greatest money-saving Cycle List ever published. 112 pages. —H. Fitzpatrick, Dept. 7, Burnley,
(CYCLISTS can save money by writ-^ ing a P.C. for a copy of our catalogue of Juno cycles (from £3 18s., or 7s. 6d. month ; Two-Speed,
£4 14s. 6d., or 9s. Id. month) and accessories, over 150 pages, 1,000 illustrations, cut prices. Bowden brakes, 2s. 6d.; Acetylene lamps, 2s. 6d.; Luggage carriers, 4£d.; Front Brakes, Is. ; Inner tubes, 2s. 2d. ; Cyclometers, 2s. 2d.—H. Dept. Metropolitan Machinists’ Co., Ltd., 248, Bishops-gate, London. ’Phone 12857 Central. T?REE.—Pocket Rubber Stamp of your name and address, also particulars of splendid paying spare time Agency, easily worked. — N. Richford, Snow Hill, London.
Madison motors, Littieover, Derby. Makers liigh-class gas engines, oil engines, petrol engines, for road, water; air castings supplied. Magnificent miniature petrol motor castings, part machined, 9s. 9d.; boilers, water motors, dynamos, repairs, propellors. List, 4d. TV/TAGiClA.N’S BOX, 12 surprising Novelties, 7d., including Catalogue.—Vandys, 108. Strand, London.
OAK Picture Mouldings, 1-in., 8d., lj-in., 10£d-» per 12-ft. lengths ; all binds fancy mouldings. Speciality : mouldings mitred ready for
joining. Complete catalogue of mouldings, pictures, etc., 4d. stamps, booklet “How to Frame Pictures” free.— Watts, Dept. H. H., Eccle3 New }{oart, Salford.
pATENTS.—How Obtained; 70-
page book ; post free.—W. H. Taylor, Dept. H3, Brown Street, Manchester.
pLAYER PIANO, sixty-five note
1 Music Rolls for sale, latest and best selections, including “ The Chocolate Soldier,” “ Dollar Princess,” “ Girl in the Train,” 1812 Overture,“QuakerGirl,” ’’Dorothy,” “ Pinafore,” “ Maritana,” “ Faust,” “ A Waltz Dream,” Rienzi Overture, etc., etc.—Apply at once to “ Es-preno,” 210, Old Christchurch Road, Bournemouth.
PRINTING PRESS, Printing Sur--1- face, 5 by 9 in., Metal Type, Ink, Roller, and Accessories, 10s.— Jordan, 39, Dagnan Road, Balham, London.
QEND six penny stamps for a ^ preparation for making one gallon of excellent pop.—Macdonald, 73, Albert Street, Ardwick, Manchester.
^TECHNICAL BOOKS, at great re--1- ductions. New books at 25 per cent, discount. Books on Woodwork, Metalwork, Industrial Arts, on Scientific, Commercial, and all other subjects sent on approval. Send for Catalogue No. 287 (post tree), and state wants. Books purchased.—W. and G. Foyle, 135, Charing Cross Road, London, W.C.
yOU can earn Is. per hour.—FulJ particulars of employment, apply W., 89, Aldersgate Street,
jo Fountain Pen for 6d., just to * introduce our goods. Send 6d. to-day and participate in this unprecedented offer.—A. G. Rainbird (Dept. H), 149, Roding Road, Clapton, London.
/?^-PAGE Book about Herbs and How to Use Them, post free. Send for one.—Trimnell, The Herbalist, Richmond Road, Cardiff. Established- 1879.
D ARGAIN.—Sandringham i-plate l> Camera, stand, splendid slides, accessories; just new ; double extension, rapid achromatic lens, iris diaphragm, tijne, instantaneous. Approval, 25s.—Gillingham, Dairy, Porchester.
ljIG Bargain, new, not perished, 20-foot best rubber tubing, quantity splendid French, &c., books, cost 10s., and 100 good handy, articles, brushes, rings, compass, chain, &c., 3s. 6d., whole lot.— Jackson, Brady Street, Whitechapel.
TjRITON Fretsaw, cost 14s. 6d.,
-D annent 7s. fid.—86., Hasland
accept 7s. 6d Road, Chesterfield.
T)ROWNIE, Canvas Case, develop-^ ing box, new, 6s. 6d.—Richardson, 33, Granton Road, Liverpool.
pIGARETTE Cards—100, 7d., post ^ free ; complete series, 5d. each. —Gifford, 8, Batley Road, Stoke Newington.
pRICKET. — First-class Club’s ^ Tackle, a bargain :—Four men’s 15s. Match Bats, all cane handles, grand drivers, Ayre’s, etc., for 8s. each ; new Guinea Bag, solid cowhide ends, 12s. 6d. ; pair 10s. 6d. white buckskin pads, 6s. ; gauntlets, 5s. 6d. batting gloves, 3s. 6d.; and three best 6s. 6d. treble-seamed match, balls, new, for 12s . ; lot, in new and perfect condition, for 67s. 6d. ;
approval.—Box 378, Gilyard’s Lib-rary, Bradford.
l^XCHANGE 3-piece fishing rod, ^ and “ Mashee ” golf club (new) for good set “ chessmen,” or offers.— Godwin, Broadway, Bury St. Edmunds.
EXCHANGE Medical Coil, Motor, ^ 45 Cabinet Lantern Slides, 2ft.
6in. yacht for “Ideal” Hand Camera, Hobbies A1 Treadle Machin?, or Canaries.—Almond, Oaklands, Flix-ton, Lancs.
[EXCHANGE No. 15 Pony Premier' 5 by 4 Camera for a Pcst-card Camera, R.R. Lens, Victor Shutter.—
G. Hodson, Wilson Street, Lincoln.
XCHANGE Edison Gem Phonograph and 20 Records, in good condition lor Treadle Fretsaw and Fretwork Tools. Approval, Bird, Dersingham, Norfolk. ttmOR Sale, J-Plate Camera and all accessories, including b fr&me, 50 gaslight postcards, and paper,
3 dishes, chemical, plates, squeegee, ferrotype, measure, tripod, and toning outfit, cheap, £1 Is.—John Goldthorpe, 13, Field End, Honley, Hudd.
T^RETWORK Machine, 12s. 6d. ;
-F 16 dozen assorted saws, 3s. 6d. ; stain, cost 4s., for 2s. ; 14in. handframe, Is. 4d. ; 5s. fretwood,
2s. Id. First P.O. get them.—A. Bogie, Y.M.C.A., Kirkcaldy.
l'RETWORK Machine (Treadle), ^ with drilling attachment, good condition ; accept 16s. 6d., or nearest offer.—64, Mayer Street, Hanley,
(CUITAR Zither, in case, soiled ; 9s. ^ 1Tier, 41, Lancaster Road,
New Barnet.
hOBBIES JJand Camera, takes 12 i-plates ; exposure indicator ; good lens; 10s.—Pentelow, Sleaford Road, Boston.
TTOBBIES Royal Fretsaw Machine, LL perfect condition, 12s. 6d.—
Brookes, 86, Bishop Street, Moss Side,
Manchester. ______
LJ OBBIES A1 Fretwork Machine, -El nearly new, 14s.—Beal, 110, East R°ad, London.___________________
[ AWN BOWLS.—Splendid £2 2s.
Set, consisting of four pairs full-size selected polish Lignum Bowls ; medium bias, never used ; complete, in strong case, with two jacks, for 27s. 6d. ; approval.—Box 379, 1;
Gilyard’s Library, Bradford.
(<Continued on 'page 160.)
question’s should be sen*, to Editor, “Hobbies,” Dereham, Norfolk, and marked “ Helpiny Hand." When reply by post is required, a stamped envelope must be enclosed.
F. E. N., London (SI.) ; H. A., Ponders End (W.) ; R. M., Otterburn (SI.); D. D., Wealdstone ; C. P. C., Dublin; F. W., Deptford ; A.T., Biimingham ; G. M., Couprr Angus ; G. H. S., Harlesden ; W. P. A. L., Biimingham ; C. G., Plumstead ; S. P., Manchester ; A. H. P., Pother -hithe; W. H. L., Skibbereen (B.) ; P. B., Plymouth (B.) ; B. P., Buckingham (B.) ; W. N. H., Pisca (N.) ; J. S. Wandsworth (N.) ; A. B. C., Belvedere; J. O’S., Newcastle (S.) ; W. H., Gloucester ; P. C., Tara ; H. E. H , Stratford ; D. E. D., Aberdare ; T. H., Whitstable (N.) ;
E. G. F., Bath ; H. C. M., Peckham ; J. W., Rochdale ;
F. P., Newark ; W. L., Pitsmoor (J.) ; P. J., Willington /J.) ; D. C., Wallington ; P. C. G., Hemel Hempstead; q. P. W., Weston-super-Mare ; S. B. P., West Kirby.
To find speed of Instantaneous Shutter.—A. B. (Greenwich).—Shutters are best tested by firms making a speciality of the work as, for example,Staley and Co.,of Thavies Inn, and Beck, of Cornhill, London. The usual charge is sixpence. A rough and ready method suitable for an amateur is as follows : Tie a piccc cf white paper on the rim of a bicycle wheel (bicycle turned upside down) and with the hand on the treadle turn so as to make the paper on the wheel (and of course the wheel) make one revolution per second. Expose a plate on the moving wheel and the speed of the shutter can be estimated by the amount of movement shown by the white paper. If, for example, the paper takes up one-fifth of the circle the speed is one-fifth of a second.— SI.
Camera.—F. Gear (Greenhithe).—1. The covering | of your hand camera, if of leather, may be revived by using any black leather reviver. Most photographic dealers sell proper mixtures for about a shilling. We could give you a formula, but it would be very trouble-some to make up, and expensive, too, if you have only ,one camera to repair. 2. Magnifiers are for photographing near objects, they are used in front of the lens. If one is marked “ six feet ” it means that when used on the lens the camera may be placed six feet from the object. We hope to deal with the matter in a special article later on. 3. The time and instantaneous knob is for regulating the shutter and the numbers 25, 50, etc.. are the speeds at which the shutter works when the knob i? placed ageinst “ instantaneous.” A few t.ials before tilling with plates will show you what the knob and shutter will do.—SI.
Miscellaneous.—Unknown (Jarvis Brook).—1. Hob-bi<s do not supply countersinking drills to fit Simplex drill. 2. Cost of clamp to fit cutting table No. 1 is 5d., p.f. 6d. 3. Full particulars in regard to the “ Lord’s
Prayer Tablet ” appear in Hobbies, No. 129, which may be obtained direct from Hobbies, Ltd., Dereham, 2d. post free. 4. The approximate cost of cariiage for a fretwork machine to Crowborough is 2s. 6d. 5. The cost
of a lever frame 12in. long is 2s. 4d. post free.
Books on British Birds and their Eggs.—A Reader.— “ Birds’ Eggs of the British Isles,” 10s. 6d.,or “ British Birds’ Eggs and Nests,” Is., from Watkins and Doncaster, Strand, W.C.
Lenses for Hand Camera.—C. T. H. (Marlow).—Hobbies Limited, Dereham, can supply you with lenses, if you give the size and about the price you wish to pay.
Electric Bell.—A. E. Copest ake (Marlow).—Q.— How7 could I connect up an electric bell so that it would ring from two or more places ?
A.—The bell and battery should be connected in series as usual, and two lines, one connected to one side of the bell and the other to one side of the battery, should be carried round to all the points wrhere the pushes will be fixed. The two sides of each push should then be connected to the two lines.—J.
Weekly Papers on Photography.—W. J. Aggett (Chag-ford).—“ Amateur Photography,” 2d. ; “ British Journal of Photography,” 2d ; “ Photography and Focus,” Id.
Locomotive.—W. Whitehead (S. Tottenham). — The price of 16 wheels for Hobbies’ Fretwork Locomotive is 3s. 7d., post free.
Water Plants.—G. T. Bradford (Manchester).— You can obtain the eichhornea and water lilies from Hebbies Horticultural Department, Dereham. Send your address and enquiry to them, and they will wiite you fully in the matter.
Model Sailing Yacht.—C. Bennett (Portsmouth.)— We hope to be able to insert an article shortly, giving particulars of the construction of a model sailing yacht.
To protect water colour drawing.—Sweepstake (Carluke.)—We can only suggest that you frame the drawing, p acing a sheet of glass in front to protect it. To remove enamel from your cycle, use a scraper and emery paper.
Silver-plating small articles, and hardening and tempering tools.—E. Baker (Tividale).—1. You require the book entitled “ Practical Electro-Plating,” Is. net, from Percival Marshall and Co., Poppin’s Court, Fleet Street, E.C. 2. The tool must tlrst be hardened. This is done by heating it in the fire to a blood red, and plunging it swiftly into cold water. It will next need to be tempered. This is done by heating another piece of metal to a red heat and after cleaning the tool, making it bright, lay it upon ttie red hot metal and watch for a change of colour. It will first turn straw colour, ai.d gradually shade off to blue. The degrees of temperature can only be ascertained with a knowledge of what the tool is required for, but immediately the required degree as shown by the colour is arrived at, again plunge the tool into cold water, and the process is complete. For metal work the tool should be tempered to straw colour only, but if the tool is to be used for woodwork it may be tempered to a blue shade.
How to make a Rowing Boat.—J. Ruet (London, W.)— We should advise you to write to Lynwood and Co., 12, Paternoster Row, London, E.C., for a book on the subject.
Re Hobbies Design No. 760b.—A. E. Cotton (S. Tottenham.)—We should recommend French polish as the best finish.
Cycling route from Walthamstow to Rayne, nr. Braintree.—Cyclist (Walthtmstow).—The best cycling rouL<, from Walthamstow to Rayne is as follows : Walthamstow, Lfeyton, Ilford, Romford, Brentwood, Chelmsford, Litt.e Waltham, Braintree. The distance is 40 miles.
Cycling route from Huddersfield to Blackpool.—L. S. D. (Huddersfield).—The best cycling route from Huddeis-fieid to Blackpool is as follows : Huddersfield, Elland, Tcdmorden, Bacup, Rawtenstall, Haslingden, Blackburn, Preston, Ashton, Kirkham, Weeton, Blackpool. The distance is 62 miles.
Coins.—S. G. (Carlisle).—The coin of which you send a rubbing is a comparatively modern piece in circulation in the Ottoman Empire. It is of quite small value.—B,
Stamps, etc.—J. B. Bell (Transvaal).—The stamp you send for our inspection is of the common Id. red type, watermark large crown, and is of quite small value, such stamps being very ctmmon indeed, and frequently met with in old correspondence. If, however, you have any considerable number of the 2d. blue there might be among them some of the rarer plate numbers and varieties, but unless those of the earlier date, imperforate, they are not of much importance. Indeed, the 2d. blue are only listed at Id. to Is. each, according to variety. Reduced prints of the map of London to which you refer have no special commercial value, and are frequently met with in miscellaneous parcels of prints. We fear they would not be of sufficient importance to submit to a dealer B.
1910 being placed in a panel below. At the four corners of the stamp, the colouring of which is blue, are the shields of the countries of the Union, the two upper shields being the arms of the Cape of Good Hope and Natal; the lower shields the Orange Free State, and the Transvaal. The stamp may be obtained from any London dealer at a trifle above face value.
Thin weakly shoots of Roses.
Take advantage of fine weather to stir the soil.
Syringe overhead fresh planted Evergreens.
Sow Wallflowers.
Springe Wall Roses.
Remove Bedding Plants from heated structures.
Repot Chrysanthemums.
Pot on Dahlias.
Destroy Insects on Peach Trees.
Plant Cucumbers and Melons.
the flower garden.
ROSES.—Thin the weakly shoots of Roses where too many buds are broken. Concentration of the growing force, when one has time to carry it out, is the right course to adopt.
Take advantage of every fine day to stir the surface among growing plants, and to kill weeds when small.
At this season special attention must be given to newly planted evergreens; damping the foliage in the evening is very beneficial. A light mulch over the roots of short grass from the cuttings of the lawn will be useful.
Continue to move bedding plants from heated structures to cold frames or temporary sheltering places.
Calceolarias in sheltered gardens. These may now be planted out.
Sow Wallflowers to obtain fine plants for blooming early next season. It is best to sow thinly in shallow drills.
Where beds of Roses are not mulched the surface should be frequently stirred with the hoe.
Syringe wall Roses on fine afternoons with a weak solution of soft soap and water.
This will be found an excellent and cheap prevention to insect attacks.
Chrysanthemums, for bloom-
colour is equal to that of the Crimson Rambler ; its flowers are produced in immense clusters, after the style of Minnehaha, although the individual flowers of Excelsa are larger.
A mulching of manure will prove beneficial to Raspberries.
Plant out Cucumbers and Melons in pits, from which bedding plants have been removed.
Tomatoes.—Fertilise the blooms to induce a good set. A camel’s hair brush, drawn over the. anthers to shift the pollen when they are fully expanded about noon, will suffice ; a free ventilation is necessary, and a little air at night is beneficial.
12 Strong Well Hardened TOMATO PLANTS.
One of the Heaviest Cropping Varieties ever introduced.
The smooth, round fruits are of medium size, and of a bright crimson colour. Tomatoes for open-air cultivation should be. planted out now. Train to one stem, and pinch out all lateral growth.
These are worth 2d. each or 2/- per dozen, but for one week only we will send post free the 12 (equally suitable for indoor or outdoor cultivation) for 1/4.
This Offer will Close May 27th.
Hobbies Horticultural Depart-tng under glass, ought to be in 5 or 6in. pots by this. Use good sound loamy soil, and pot them fairly firm.
When a little established they should be stood on a bed of ashes in a sunny place in the open air. If dwarf plants are required, they must be cut down to 6in. from the soil the first or second week in June.
Dahlias should be all potted off from the cutting pots immediately. Grow them on for a time in genial temperature.
The greenhouse ought to be very gay now with a variety of subjects ; more water will now be required, with an occasional dose of liquid manure to such as are in or advancing into bloom. Ventilate rather freely whenever safe, and shade from strong sun, to preserve the flowers as long as possible.
Seed of Chinese Primulas may be sown at once.
Lovers of Rambling Roses will find in the new “ Excelsa ” a grand acquisition. Its 166
Beet may be sown for an autumn crop.
A dressing of soot should prove of material benefit to Turnips. Sprinkle in a dry state and water in ; or, better still, scatter the soot during a shower of rain.
Sow Runner Beans,
A few rows of Cabbage may be planted to produce tender young hearts for autumn use. Cabbages are never altogether out of season.
Plant Walcheren and Veitch’s Autumn Giant Cauliflowers. The latter is invaluable for dry soils. Sow a few seeds of the former for late autumn use.
No time should now be lost in getting out Cucumbers and Vegetable Marrows.
Tomatoes for open-air cultivation should be planted out now. Select plants in an advanced stage of development, for over young plants will not have time to mature their fruits before the summer wanes. Plant against a south or south-west wall. If the wall be not of sufficient height for vertical training, train slanting wise ; do not mulch with animal manure, although a good rich rooting medium should be provided. Artificial manure, administered when the plants are in bearing, is the best plan to adopt. Pinch out all lateral growths as they appear. Keep the Potato plot weeded.
Sow Endive in small quantities. Lettuces and other salad plants must have good culture a mulch of manure, especially on hot
now, soils.
The “ KNIGHT ”
Highly Recommended.
Drive Wheels 10in. high, Cutting Barrel of large diameter with 6 blades, revolved at high speed, ensuring close even cutting, prices :
Width of Cut 12in. 14in.
Price £2 9s. 6d, £2 16s. 6d.
Grass Boxes 6s. 6d. 7Si 6d.
Width or Cut 16in. 18in.
Price £3 3s. Od. £3 tOs. 6d,
Grass Boxes 8s. 6d. tOs. 6d.
Other patterns at prices from 23s. to £8 10 0 Full particulars from
HOBBIES LIMITED, Dereham, or Branches.
1 do not require payment until you have seen and approved of the netting. Others may try to copy me, but this Netting is the best stout, small mesh, as supplied by ME to the
ROYAL GARDENS. Will not rot. 30 square yards, for Is. any length or width made. Orders over 5s. carriage paid. List and samples free. I can also supply netting as supplied by others at 60 sq. yards for 1s.
H. J. GASSON, The Net Works, Rye.
It is fixed to the frame by means of the spring
clip. It automatically removes the dust. _Pric©^6d._ Postage Id.
USED BY ROYALTY. Undoubtedly the Best.
POSTCARDS, Sent Post Free, 15 for Is.
King and Queen High-clasa Gold Bevelled Photo Postcards 15 for Is* -
Black & White Studies Photo-like Process,
Pretty Children, Forests, Farms <fc Fields, Meadows & Quiet Corner*, Pretty Landscapes, &c. Each Postcard different. Post Free, 15 for 1*.
CORONA.TION GOLDEN DESIGN BROOCHES, Coronation Jewellery, 12 assorted for 12 stamps^ as samples to sell again. No further charges.
T.B.L., Kinc's Premises, Savoy Corner, Strand, London,
pOR the convenience of Fretworkera In large towns, we have appointed leading Ironmongers as our Official Agents for the sale ot all the Hobbies Specialities. A list of the Agent3 already appointed Is given below, and we shall from time to time add to their numbers.
Aberdeen.—Mr. Jas. Mutch,*21, Broad Street.
Abertillery, Mon.—Mr. Arthur Phillips, Church Street. Accrington.—Messrs. Stephenson <fe Sons, 31* Blackburn Road.
Barniley.—Mr. T. W. Brown, 30, Eldon Street. Barrow-in-Furness.—Mr. J. Underwood, 67, Dalton Road.
Bath.—Mr. R. Membery, 87, Southgate Street.
Bedford.—Mr. T. S. Carpenter, 8, Midland Road. Blackburn.—Mr. Robert Howson, 68, Darwen Street, Blackpool.—The Blackpool Cycle Co., 181, Church Streat Bradford.—Messrs. T. Underwood <fc Co.. 9 and 10, Manchester Road.
Bristol.—Mr. Thos. ,T. Gardner, 3A, Narrow Wine Street;, and Port View Road, Avonmouthf Bromley, Kent.—Mr. F. E. Head, 32, High Street Burnley.—Messrs. D. & J. Dawson, 14, Yorkshire Street, Cambridge.—Mr. H. S. Driver, 56, Hills Road. Canterbury.—Mr. T D. Goodman, 33, Burgate Street, Cardiff.—Mr. John Hall, 31, Morgan Arcade.
Chelmsford.—Messrs. B. H. Harrison & Son, 65, High SfS, Cheltenham.—Messrs. S. C. H. Dix & Co., 27, Bath Road, Chiswick.—Messrs. Lucas & Co., 390, High Road. Coatbridge.—Messrs. James Barton & Co., 62, Main Street, Croydon.—Mr. L.H.Turtle, 6, Crown Hill, & 53, North End, Doncaster.—Mr. G. P. Preston, 37, Station Road.
Dover.—Mr. E. F. Bockham, 13, Worthington Street. Dublin.—Mr. J. J. McQuillan, 36, Capel Street. Eastbourne.—Mr, A. Caplin, 5, Elms Buildings, Seaside Rd. Folkestone.—Messrs. Jones Bros., 123, Dover Road, and 84, Broadmead Road.
Gloucester.—Messrs. Parsons Bros., 34, Eastgata Stro36, Halifax.—Mr. E. A. Hirst, 52, New Crown Street. Hamilton.—Messrs. Robert A, Paton & Son, 36, Cadzow 36,
Hull.—Mr. O. F. Walker, 17 and 18, George Street, Inverness.—Mr. J. Chisholm, 14, Falcon Square.
Leicester.—Mr. Frank Berry, 3, Loseby Lane.
Lincoln.—Messrs. Musgrave & Co., Free School Lana Liverpool.—Mr. C. Lucas, 116, Dale St.
Luton.—Mr. W. J. Barrett, 25, Park Square.
Maidstone.—Messrs. Denniss, Paine & Co., 61, High 3ft. Margate.—Mr. G. E. Houghton, 19, Fort Road,
Merthyr.—Mr. E. M. Thomas, 18, Park Place.
Nelson, Lancs.—Messrs. J. & I. Foulds, 55, Leeds Road. Newark.—Messrs. Richmond and Son, Boar Lane,
Newbury.—Mr. H. Povey, 12,,Oxford Street.
Newcastle.—Mr. T. Owen, B, Grainger Arcade:
Newport.—Mr, John Hall, 77, High Street.
Oxford.—Messrs Foort & Son, 47, Cornmarket Street. Portsmouth.—Messrs. Osborn Brothers, 4, Edinburgh Rd*,,. Preston.—Mr. J. Southworth, 95, 96 and 97, Moot Lane, Reading.—Mr. W J. Sarjent, 44, West Street.
Rochdale.—Mr, Walter Dean, 96, Yorkshire Street,
Sheffield.—Mr. J. B. Hindiey, 9 to 11, Waingate, Southampton.—Messrs. H. Osborn & Co., 9, liigh Streak South Shields.—Mr. R. Clark, 4, Church Row.
St. Helens.—Mr. W. M. Kerr, 11, Westfield Street. Sunderland—The Electric and General Stores Co., Id** Bridge Street.
Swansea.—Mr. John Hall, 24 and 25, High Street, Arcade. Wigan.—Mr. Thos. J. S. Clephan, 24, Standishgate. Woolwich.—Messrs. J. & C. E. Pearson, 7 and 9, New Rd York.—Mr. J. H. Shouksmith, 59, Mickelgate.
Agents for Cape Town and District.
MESSRS. JAMES WYLLIE AND SONS, 62, Strand Street, Cape Town, Cape Colony, South Africa,
HOBBIES LONDON DEPOT: 166, Aldersgate Street, E.0^ LONDON HORTICULTURAL DEPOT 17, Broad Street Place, E.C.
Hobbies Supply Stores —
LONDON, 147, Bishopsgate, E.C.
LONDON, 79, Walworth Road, S.E.
GLASGOW, 326 and 323, Argyle Street. MANCHESTER, 198, Deansgate. BIRMINGHAM, 2, Old Square.
LEEDS 15, County Arcade
MAY\ 20, 1911
whether he be a CAMPER or a CARAVANNER, a SIMPLE LIFER or a TOURIST,
cannot do better than call or write to
He will then find that all his wants are liberally and intelligently catered for at the lowest possible price. Some suggestions :
Ground Sheets, Blankets,
Camp Beds and Bedding, "Canteens,
Cooking Utensils, Lanterns,
First Aid Outfits, Portable Stoves, Water Bottles, Pocket Filters,
Kit Bags, Footwear, Headwear, Clothing, Cutlery, &c.
Tor Boating, Camping Out, &c.
"'Government Duck, 8 ft. by 6 ft.................... 50s.
,, 9 ft. by 7 ft. .................. 63s.
-Rot-proof Canvas, 8 ft. bv' 6 ft.................. 60s.
9 ft. by 7 ft.................... 70s.
Socketed Poles, 5s- extra.
Made from very light, strong khaki waterproof canvas, well ventilated, and fitted with windows at each end.
Complete in valise, 8 ft. 'by 6 ft................. 93s. 6d.
„ 9 ft. by 7 ft.................... lOOs.
12 ft. by 7 ft...................118s. 6d.
The “Referee” Cricket Bat, with Cork, Leather, or Rubber bound handles, very full in the drive. Why pay more? 16s. 6d. post free.
The “ A.W.G.” Bat, skilfully modelled, latest im-
? roved spring handle, No. 5, 6s. 6d.; No. 6, 's. lid. and 10s. 6d. Carriage 4d.
Men’s All-Cane Handle, 4s. lid. Carriage 4d.
Men’s Spring Handle, 6s 9d., 8s. lid. Carr. 4d. The “ Club ” Cricket Ball, 3 seams, full size, 3s.6d. each. Carriage 4d.
Youths’ ditto, 4f oz., 3s. Id. each. Carr. 4d.
The “Referee” hand-made oz., 4s. 6d. each. Youths’4| oz., 4s. each. Carr. 4d.
The “Australian,” guaranteed, best silk and gut sewn, oz., 5s. each.
Men’s Polished Ash Stumps, 2s. 6d. ; Men’s Polished Ash Stumps, brass bound tops, 3s. ; Men’s Polished Ash Stumps, improved with steel shoes and brass-bound tops, 4s. lid.; Men’s Polished Ash Stumps, with solid brass tops,
6s. 6d. Carriage 4d.
Leg Guards from 3s. 6d.
Batting Gloves from 2s. 6d.
Wicket Keeping Gloves from 3s. 3d.
Cricket Bags from 4s. 3d.
Suitable for camping, picnic, and upriver use. Stove complete in tin-box, with repair outfit, spirit and p a r a ffi n tins, draught screen, &c. Lpgs and burner detachable for packing. Size of b ix. 7i by 6 bySi in. Price 14s. lid. Stove only 9s. Please state if roarer or silent burner required. The roarer is recommended a na for outdoor use.
Used the world over, no smoke, no smell, no blackening of utensils, hurricane proof. Will cook a steak in 5 mins. at a cost of 1/86 part of Id., or boil £-gal. of water in less than 4 min. at a cost of 1/38 part of Id. Prices: Medium size, 8s. lid. ; larger size, 10s. 3d. (Descriptive circular free.)
All Q DAPTQ Cheapest House, Orun o. Endless Variety.
The “Special Club” Racket. Suitable for expert or novice, up-to-date in every detail.
Price lOs. 6d., perfect satisfaction guaranteed. Postage 4d.
The “ Expert’s ” Racket. Our special “A.W.G.” English fash frame, strung with English gut. Price 15s, 6d. Postage 4d.
The “ Gamage ” Racket. Nothing better made, best English gut, selected frames, perfect balance, 18s. 6d., equal to any 27s. 6d. racket.
The “Gamage” Series of Tennis Balls, covered good quality cloth, 5s. 9d.,
8s. 6d., 9s 6d. The
“ Gamage ” Match, guaranteed, 11s. 6d. doz. Postage 4d. doz.
The “ SUPERB ’• Folding Camera.
A dainty pocket Camera. Just the thing to take when holiday making. Compact and well made. For Plates or films (3£ by 2?). Fitted R.R-Lense and Shutter.
Price with 2 Slides,
Film Pac Adapter
Published for the Proprietors, Hobbies Limited, by Horace Marshall & Son, Temple Avenue, 125, Fleet Street, London, E.O- iv.

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